Czhang wrote: > I just had to share this... I thought this has a lot of relevance: > to conlanging in terms of semantics, > to conculturing in terms of metaphors and cultural interpretation, > to our own lives and creativity in terms of being able to "see things >differently and anew", etc. > So I quote Ursula Le Guin... > > "We know where the future is. It's in front of us. Right? It lies before >us - a great future lies before us - we stride forward confidently into it, >every commencement, every election year. And we know where the past is. >Behind us, right? So that we have to turn around to see it, and that >interrupts our progress ever forward into the future, so we don't really much >like to do it. > "It seems that the Quechua-speaking peoples of the Andes see all this >rather differently. They figure that because the past is what you know, you >can see it - it's in front of you, under your nose. This is a mode of >perception rather than action, of awareness rather than progress. Since >they're quite as logical as we are, they say that the future lies behind - >behind your back, over your shoulder>>(snip) I can't claim any such philosophical basis, but this is reminiscent of how Kash handles "before" and "after". Temporal "before" and locative "before, in front of" use derivs of the same base _kandi_ (also related to _kati_ 'face', which used to be kandi before I changed it-- too much ambiguity): ri kandi... 'in front of, before'; kakandi 'beforehand, earlier'; kandi˝ (prep.) 'before (in time)'. Similarly 'after, later on' and 'in back of, behind' are based on šelum 'back, behind'. The inspiration/cause of all this was Ml/Indonesian _kemudian_ 'later on, afterward', based on a root _mudi_ that doesn't occur otherwise, but survives in other AN languages as "back, behind". Temporal "before, after" are interesting too-- sebelum 'before' < belum 'not yet'; sesudah 'after' < sudah 'already'. I've wondered at times if this wasn't a little illogical; it's nice to see the eminent Ms. Le Guin confirm it-- even though the rest of the Kash world-view doesn't conform in toto.