I've been in the process of editting my roots for my related languages Silindion and Nindic (a name which I hate, but I've been stuck with). Every so often, (or actually, almost every time I go back to the roots), I wind up deriving new words for Nindic. Some of these new creations are below. _ow_ egg /o:/ (plural: _ew_ /Ew/) *oba One of my personal favorites! _ceil_ a small creek /ke:l/ (plural: _ceili/n_ /ke:li:n/) *kesli _gwarow_ fruit /gwaro:/ (plural: _gweryw_ /gwEriw/) *war-oba _pib_ sparrow /pib/ (plural: _pibaedd_ /pibajD/ or _pibi/n_ /pibi:n/) *piwo-epa _callach_ mushroom /kalax/ (plural: _call_ /kal/) *kalna-ksi and finally: _pewd_ foot /pEwd/ (plural: _peid_ /pe:d/) *petuw Now, my question is twofold (actually..it's two questions): 1) *kesli from which came _ceil_ meant a Little Valley, as can be seen in Silindion: _keili_ valley. Is it a plausible semantic shift from Little Valley to Little Stream in a Little Valley to Stream in a Valley? 2) In this spread of words, I have included words which are interesting because of their (superficial though it is) similarity to real world words in various languages. _ceil_ is similar to the New York word _kill_ which (besides the violent death meaning), is used to describe various small creeks and streams. in a dialect of Nindic, known as Hinessio, the word: _u_ Egg, has a plural _eu_ which is pronounced exaclty the same as French _oeufs_ And finally, in the same dialect, the word _pewd_ becomes _pot_ /pOt/ and later on becomes _fot_ /fOt/ with a plural _feit_ /fe:t/. I did this intentionally to make it look like English Foot. Do any of you do the same thing in any of your conlangs? Elliott Lash.