--- Ian Maxwell wrote:

> Specicifically, I'm conceiving of an aspect that marks having the
> ability to do something. So, it would turn "to run" into "to be able to
> run". There could also be a seperate aspect for being allowed to do
> something, so that it would become "to be allowed to run". And, while
> we're at it, there could be one for willingness ("to be willing to run").
> Does anyone know of an existing language (conlangs included) that marks
> any of these? If not, I nominate the terms abilitative, permissive,
> and... um, I don't know. Any suggestions for the third?

Well, first of all, I think you should call it "mood" instead of "aspect",
since the latter term is already in use for something with a completely
different meaning.

Suggestion for the third: voluntative.

Suggestion for a fourth: obligative ("must run").

I don't know in which existing languages this phenomenon exists, but I would be
very surprised if there weren't any. After all, there is nothing particularly
revolutionary in the idea: it's just a matter of merging a verb with an

In the first person, the third (that I nicknamed voluntative) will come
dangerously close to the optative. The difference between the two moods is, of
course, that the voluntative expresses the will of the subject, while the
optative expresses the will of the speaker.

In my conlang Askaic, the optative mood has an additional meaning that
coincides with the obligative.


"Originality is the art of concealing your source." - Franklin P. Jones

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