Well, since this thread is still going and no one has mentioned Taiwan yet here's what I know about the school system here. 
guoxiao 1-6 (equivilant to American elementary)
gouzhong 1-3 (American 7th-9th)
gaozhong 1-3 (American 10th-12th)
After that is daxue.
I'm not sure if there is testing after gouxiao (lit. national little) to determine what guozhong (lit. national middle) you may enter or not, but judging by the general love affair with testing there probably is.  My school starts at guozhong.
After guozhong there is testing to determine if you enter an academic high school or a techincal highschool.  The academic highschools teach math, science, literature, etc, etc.  The technical highschools teach automotive repair, cooking, computer maintinance, nursing and other such topics along with a minimum of the academic courses.
After gaozhong (high middle) there is testing once again to determine if you go to university and if so which one and what your major will be.  The tests have all been changed recently and are either much harder or the teachers have done a less good job of "teaching to the test" (which is if anything even more rampant here than in the States), because this year the school I teach at got about 1/4 as many students accepted into universities after teh first test as last year.  Next year this will be a government school attached to one of the universities.