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Christopher Write wroght:

>Sorry I’m late.

And evidently’s #10, I tell you!!


>A bit of simple linguistic vocab.

And ever more devilish...  ;-)))


  1. to pronounce—çindi ‘speak’ (for now)

Those people pronounce everything oddly.

kaç nila ehas-ehas içindi yuno kotani

person those strange2 they=speak all word(s)-their

(kaç nila is arch./bookish/euphonious to avoid “kaçila nila”)


  1. to agglutinate – vakep ‘join together’ (for now)

Finnish agglutinates a lot.

sende suwomi pando yavekep humbiyaçni

lang. ....  much it-joins   piece-pl-its (=morphemes)


  1. to conjugate – runjura ‘recite’, caus. of cura ‘tell, narrate’ (conjugation is rather simple in Kash)

He conjugates his verbs superbly

niya lembo yarunjura kotamepuçni

very well  he-recites word-work-pl-his


  1. syntax – añelatende < añ- nomlz. + elal ‘arrange’ + sende ‘language’

Some dialects change syntax

tapat sesendeç, yaçunu añelatendeni

some dialects(top.), it-differs  syntax-its/their


  1. morpheme – hambiya(ç) ‘piece(s)’—h. lipat ‘bound morphemes’, h. pefa ‘free morphemes that are neither N, V or Numbers; kotayom ‘word-base’ lexical items (N,V,Num.)’

There are two morphemes in “head cold”

kota “head cold” (tacañi uçakik) yaworun ro kotayom

word ..... (meaning-its .....) it-contains two word-base


lusongi angayamim, kota “uçakik” yaworun mesa kotayom naponi

acc’g  knowlege-our, word ....  it-contains one  base  only

as far as we know,”


mowa-mowani, kota “makaya” (tacañi ‘I know’) yale ro hutuñi—hambiya lipat “ma-“ yam kotayom “kaya”

OTOH,     word “makaya” (meaning....) there-is two part-its --  piece captured ma- (‘I’) with base kaya (‘know’)


  1. refuse (garbage) – akukop, noml. < hukop ‘throw away’

Refuse is building up in the city

sambatni akukop ri enje yaçulavi (ya-çu-lavi)

quantity-of  ...  in  city  it-become-more


  1. stench – çahu ‘to smell bad’

The stench is horrible.

çahuni cakaçamat

bad-smell-of it  accid.-(extremely) disgusting


  1. to flinch—(paraphrased for now—cakaçapat with dative ‘be overcome with disgust, recoil in disgust, nauseated’)

I flinch whenever I pass a midden.

Me cakaçamat anju-anju maharan ri vora yuruñi (akukop)

me/dat.  .....   when2 I-walk at side place-its (garbage)


  1. to play (instrument) – tepet, specifically ‘to strum, pluck’

I play a lyre for rich men in the city

matepet tasutan/upal uçoñi kaçili pendoye ri enje

I-strum  lute/harp”  for(=benefit of) person-pl-gen. rich  in city


  1. proud—cakaçapus ‘overcome by inflation = conceited’ < çapus ‘inflated, puffed up’

They are overbearingly proud, but they also pay well.

nile cakaçapus, takanda hangani yaleñ

them/dat ....., nevertheless pay-its is-good