E f+AOk-sto Gary Shannon <[log in to unmask]>: > So my list of six primary verbs and four convenient > but not primary verbs would be: > > move, permit, exist, be, do, have +- seem, say, see, > hear This is of course mainly only useful for English. Many languages dont need "have" or "be", and any or all of these may be expressed as different parts of speech (as your post itself recognizes). I dont think 'permit' should really have made the list at all (if it's replacing 'let', which is merely an English auxiliary marking the jussive mood). Cf. also Wierzbicka's "Natural Semantic Metalanguage" which in theory is sort of like this post only more ambitious (think more like "The only SIXTY semantic items you'll ever need, in any language whatever"). Most of your verbs make the list as items: move = MOVE permit +AH4- WANT exist = THERE IS/there are do = DO say = SAY see = SEE hear = HEAR Some of the others considered rather verbal in English (NSM doesnt assign them to parts of speech) are HAPPEN, THINK, KNOW, FEEL, and LIVE. *Muke! -- http://frath.net/ E jer savne zarj+AOk- mas ne http://kohath.livejournal.com/ Se imn+AOk- koone'f metha http://kohath.deviantart.com/ Brissve m+AOk- kol+AOk- ad+AOI-.