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Could someone please enlighten me as to the sounds represented by
these funky diacritic-adorned letters in Indic transliteration?
I'm looking at the terminology of the Hindu calendar, and the
source language isn't given, but I assume Sanskrit.  In any case,
the original language is written with Devanagari, since the original
written form is given beside some of the transliterations.

The specific symbols I'm most curious about are as follows.  If someone
could translate them into IPA or CXS, I'd be most obliged.

        ā       (LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH MACRON)
                How is this different from the unmacronned <a>?

        ī       (LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH MACRON)
                Ditto.

        ś       (LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH ACUTE)

        ṛ       (LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH DOT BELOW)

        ṁ       (LATIN SMALL LETTER M WITH DOT ABOVE)

        ṅ       (LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH DOT ABOVE)

Thanks!

-Mark