Trebor Jung wrote:

> Merhaba!
> Is the phoneme /c/ (palatal stop) that 'hard /j/-sound'
> that I've heard is found in Latin American (Castilian?)
> Spanish, spelled as <ll>?

Well, most Latin American accents have no difference between <y> and <ll>,
which cannonically is a palatal fricative [j\] but whose exact realization
can vary from affricate [dZ] (english "j") to aproximant [j] (english "y"),
and from postalveolar [Z] to palatal [j\].  Usually voiced, but in Rio de La
Plata (Argentina, Uruguay), it can be a devoiced post-alveolar fricative [S]
as English "sh".

Those Latin American accents that tell appart <y> from <ll>, are those of
Quechua substract (Andean accents from Northern Chile to Southern Colombia)
who make the same difference than the Iberian Spanish: <ll> is a lateral
palatal aproximant [L] (upsidedown "y" in IPA); that is, pronounce a [j] but
let the air flow between your tongue and your lateral theet.  Or the Paisa
(Antioqueno) accent in Colombia who use [Z] for <ll> and [j\] for <y>.
Neither of them use a voiceless palatal stop [c].

-- Carlos Th