Trebor Jung wrote: > Merhaba! > > Is it possible to use a 'focus' case where non-benefactives and > non-prep.phrases (datives) are put into, and benefactives are formed > some other way? For example: ''I gave him a gift = I gave a gift to > him' - is that reasonably certainly dative? I don't think in English that non-benefactive datives can be the indirect object. The only uses of 'to' that are reducible, I think, are, in fact, benefactives. In Latin, where these come from, I think(I'm probably wrong, like usual, but still), 'dative' refers entirely to 'to' and 'for'. I think the non-benefactive meaning included. So yes, 'I gave a gift to him' is dative. In Old English and German, the Dative on its own referred to 'to' and 'for', but was also used for prepositional phrases. But I don't quite understand what you want...do you mean a case that contains all the meanings of 'to' and 'for'?