E f+AOk-sva: >> Most conlangs have a tendency to start out phonetically spelled, and to >> resist borrowings, and lack extensive dialexy, so the conditions that >> give birth to nonphonetic orthographies just dont occur as often. ObConlang! There should exist dialects of my Kirumb that have "impoverished" alphabets. The standard alphabet spells these phonemes: /a(:) b g d e(:) v dZ h t i(:) k l m n s u f C r S tS N y p x u: z/ Already vowel length is not distinguished, except in /u/, and some, such as the precursor of Atlantic, that borrow a graph for /e:/. The "impoverished" alphabet would have, /a(:) b g d e(:) v dZ h t i(:) k l m n s u(:) C f r S tS/ ...and use |n| or |g| for /N/, possibly |i| for /y/, possibly |b| or |f| for /p/ (but /p/ is a borrowed phoneme anyway, it might not be needed here), |h| for /x/, |u| for /u:/, and probably |C| for /z/. (|C| was usually only used as a variant of |s|, since Kirumb didnt have |C|.) Modern spoken Atlantic hasn't got anything more exotic than silent |h| and some silent final |e| and |E|, and using the graph for /v/ in spelling /o/ and /o:/. ObConlang Part Deux! I'm absolutely at a loss at how to spell Ibran, and even Old Ibran has phones I'm stumped by. I'll hafta throw together a post on it soon. *Muke! -- http://frath.net/ E jer savne zarj+AOk- mas ne http://kohath.livejournal.com/ Se imn+AOk- koone'f metha http://kohath.deviantart.com/ Brissve m+AOk- kol+AOk- ad+AOI-.