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Trebor Jung wrote:


Merhaba!
<<<
How different are the Arabics spoken in Morocco, Iraq, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia
etc., the Germans spoken in Germany, Switzerland, Austria etc., the Frenches
spoken in France, Canada, French Guiana etc., and the Spanishes and
Portugueses spoken around the world? What are some of the phonological and
grammatical changes in these dialects compared to the 'standard'?
>>>

For Spanish, the main  differences between dialects are:

PRONUNCIATION
Pronunciation neutralization:
  while in cannonical Spanish Castilian <y> and <ll> are different, as well
as <s> and <z>, in Andalusian and most Spanishes in the Americas <y>=<ll>
and <s>=<z>.  The same can be said of <j>=<h>.

Point of articulation:
  Latinamerican <s/z> is neither Spanish Castilian <s> nor Spanish Castilian
<z>.  In Rio de La Plata <y/ll> is a voiceless postalveolar, while in most
other dialects <y> is a voiced palatal.  etc.

There are several of these features in different dialects.  Serrano dialects
in Ecuador (i.e. Quito), for example, tell <y> and <ll> appart, takes <s>
and <z> together, and <rr> is pronounced almost as [Z] (I guess it is
actually [z`]).  My own dialect has <y>=<ll>, and <rr> is a trilled <r>.  In
Central Spain, <y> is [j\], <ll> is [L], <s> is [s[] (laminal), <z> is [T],
and <r> is trilled.

Aspiration of vowel final <s>:
This feature is present in Andalusia, Rio de La Plata and the Caribbean, and
can be either [h] or null.

GRAMMAR
Adressing:
"vosotros" is only used in Spain.  In Latin America is only used on
religious language (i.e. in mass).

"vos" istead of "tú": is used in Rio de La Plata, Chile, several dialects in
Colombia (Pastuso, Valluno and Paisa) and Central America.  Not used in the
Caribbean, Peru, Central Colombia, Mexico or Spain.
(There is another "vos" used in religious speach, but this is conjugated as
"vosotros", while dialectical "vos" has its own conjugation.)

A few so called grammatical errors are becoming accepted in some regions.
(i.e. the use of "le" as accusative in Spain proper).

PROSODY:
Most Spanish dialects are syllable-timed, however there are a few
differences in the tempo.

In Caribbean dialects, vowels are very clear, while consonants are weakened
(i.e. complete aspiration of syllable final "s").

Mexican, Andean Peruvian and Bolivian tend to weaken the vowels.  Consonants
are usually clear (i.e. no aspiration of syllable final "s").

Most untrained people from the Andes would claim that people from the
Caribbean talk too fast.  Most untrained people in the Caribbean will
realize that people in the Andes or in Mexico speak too fast.

VOCABULARY AND IDIOMS:
"ordenador" in Spain, "computadora" in Latin America.  A "chompa" is a
jacket in Bogota, while it is a T-shirt in Cartagena (Colombia).  "guagua"
is a bus in Cuba but a little child in Chile.  And the what in Chile, Peru
or Ecuador is a "guagua" would be a "chino" in Bogota or a "escuincle" in
Mexico.

As for idioms, the examples would be endless.

-- Carlos Th