From: "Andreas Johansson" <[log in to unmask]>
Sent: Friday, January 30, 2004 4:30 PM
Subject: More ASCII IPA suggestions ...

> As in X-SAMPA, all lowercase Roman letter stays. The big change is that
> anything that is represented in the IPA by a superscript is represented by
> plus the sign in question; thus ^h for aspiration, ^j for palatalization
> so on. When the superscripted character isn't ASCIIically available,
> is used for the character in its independent IPA use is used instead; eg
> for velarization.
> I'm sure this scheme perserves a variety of aspects of CXS others find
> obnoxious. Tell me, and we can hopefully word out an improvement! The
> mostly reproduces the IPA, but I'm perfectly open to add more non-IPA
> distinctions. Anyway, this what I have ATM:

Senseful. x_x can confuse, especially, because "_" can also mean it's a
double articulation or diphtong.

> H\   voiceless epiglottal fricative (someone tell me what this is!)
> <\   voiced epiglottal fricative
> >\   epiglottal plosive (I want to change these two too - suggestions?)
> s\   voiceless alveopalatal fricative
> z\   voiced alveopalatal fricative
> s\!  palatoalveolar click
> l\   alveolar lateral flap
> x\   simultaneous S and x
> 5    velarized alveolar lateral approximant

I'd like to have explained all of them if possible...

> Affricates and double articulations may optionally be inclosed in { } to
> disambiguate. Alternatively, affricate or double articulation may be
> and clusters separated by '-'. Note that normal parentesis and square
> retain their IPA functions!

I'd even put diphtongs and/or glides into brackets, e.g. {Aj}, {aU}. A
hyphen would also make sense, especially if you don't like having brackets
in brackets (if you use square brackets, e.g. [Ek_s "sEmp@] like I use to)

> Vowels:
> |  i  y        i\ u\    M  u
> |      I  Y    I\ U\     U
> |    e  2      @\ 8     7  o
> |                @
> |      E  9    3  3\    V  O
> |       &        6
> |        a  &\          A  Q

Huh? [M] was a voiceless [m], wasn't it?

> Superagementals:
> '    Primary stress
> ,    Secondary stress
> :    Long
> ;    Half-long
> ;\   Extra short
> .    Syllable break
> |    Minor (foot) group
> ||   Major (intonation) group
> For tone, I don't have any improvements on CXS to suggest ATM. However, if
> and '>' are freed up, I'm thinking they could be used to enclose tonal
> Eg, [ma<TMH>] would be the syllable "ma" with an obnoxious extra
> contour tone on. Since ! and ^ have been hijacked, it would also allow us
> use <!> and <^> for downstep and upstep.

Yay! No numbers from 1-5 anymore which don't make tone clear I think - at
least *I* never knew which one belongs to which tone. <TMH> etc. are a good
idea (although not nice looking and more at the Kirshenbaum end) because
English QUERTY keyboards AFAIK do not support directly typing ^,  and `
over letters, do they? The turned around ^ wouldn't be possible with a
QUERTZ/AZERTY keyboard either and needs Unicode as well. Other possibilities
to "enclose tonal info" could be using horizontal dashes: |TMH|, although
these could be easily mixed up with [I]'s and [l]'s, depending on the font
you're using. Well, in serif fonts this doesn't matter, but if you look at
non-serif fonts... rather difficult to tell apart when having only a quick

> Diacritics:
> _0   voiceless (zero)
> _v   voiced
> ^h   aspirated
> _o   more rounded (using lowercase lessens risk for confusion with _0)
> _c   less rounded
> _+   advanced
> _-   retracted
>     centralized (did not seem to be any reason not get rid of the
> *    mid-centralized
> =    syllabic
> =    non-syllabic (can't think of any symbol that need distinct syllabic
> non-syllabic diacritics!)
> `    rhoticity
> _   breathy voiced

The trema requires typing in an ALT+0000 combination. Not possible on
QUERTY/QUERTZ at least. And remember, English and other languages have no
<>, <> or <> (in Swedish <y> nevertheless) and thus do not require keys
for those letters. Btw, <>, <> require ALT combinations in every case on
English, German and French keyboards.

> _~   creaky voiced (these two increase similarity to the IPA)
> _N   linguolabial
> ^w   labialized
> ^j   palatalized
> ^G   velarized
> ^?\  pharyngealized
> _e   velarized or pharyngealized (no, I don't know why we need this)
> ^r   raised
> ^o   lowered (these written as if superscripts to free up _o for more
> _A   advanced tongue root
> _q   retracted tongue root
> _d   dental
> _a   apical
> _m   laminal
> _s   sublaminal
> ~    nasalized (notice that _~ is NOT a valid alternative for nasalization
> this scheme!)
> _n   nasal release
> _l   lateral release
> _`   no audible release (similarish to IPA diacritic, and I hate brackets
> for non-brackety purposes)

And how is this scheme supposed to be called? JX-SAMPA (Johansson's
X-Sampa)? BTW, what does SAMPA stand for? X- is "extended" AFAIK.

Carsten Becker