I see that no one has answered your first question, so I'll give it a
try. Speech sounds are produced on an airstream. Typically this
airstream is the result of exhalation (i.e., out from the lungs). Some
languages also use the closed glottis to move air around. If you close
your vocal folds and raise your larynx, you can produce an airstream.
Consonants which are articulated on this kind of airstream are
glottalized; ejectives are the most common example. If you close your
vocal folds and lower your larynx you can produce an airstream which
goes "backwards" -- towards the lungs instead of away from them. A
consonant articulated on this kind of airstream is an implosive.


On Tuesday, February 3, 2004, at 08:41  AM, Trebor Jung wrote:

> Merhaba!
> I have a few questions as usual:
> 1. What are implosive consonants?
> 2. Can anyone give me more examples of dynamism, like Arabic 'ride vs.
> mount' and 'reside vs. settle'? Wouldn't this be a matter of
> completion? After all, when you ride a horse, you've finished mounting
> it (unless it's been scared and you can't get on fast enough, of
> course :) ), and when you reside somewhere, you've finished settling
> there (and have lived there for a (little) while).
> 3. Could someone give me a list of moods with sample sentences? I'm
> not sure how many and what they are, and would like to use a whole
> bunch in one of my conlangs, but the Wikipedia, How to create a
> language, and LCK don't have much information about them.
> --Trebor