Herman: > taliesin the storyteller wrote: > > Basically, there are verbs that take can take subclauses as arguments, > > here are two, seem and try: > > > > 1) "David seemed to leave" > > 2) "David tried to leave" > > > > The first is a raising-verb, the second is an equi-verb. [...] > But I don't get what "equi-verbs" are supposed to be, unless it's > "something that looks like a raising verb but isn't". Contrast LIKELY (raising) and EAGER (equi): David is likely to leave. David is eager to leave. "David" is a semantic argument of "leave" and of "eager" but not of "likely". Likewise contrast CONSIDER (raising) and PERSUADE (equi): I considered David to be well-behaved. I persuaded David to be well-behaved. "David" is a semantic argument of "(to be) well-behaved" and of "persuaded" but not of "considered". It still has not been settled to what, if any, extent there are syntactic differences between raising and equi in English. But from a conlanger's p.o.v. it is clear that whereas raising is a grammatical quirk, which a conlanger can simply ignore (-- just say "That David leaves is likely" and "I considered that David is well-behaved"), equi is something the conlanger does have to find a way to deal with. * * * Livagian has raising, but as a grammatical construction that is not an idiosyncrasy of lexical complementation. So for example in addition to the raisingless ju fmyhgh li [begin [sleep [me]]] "I begin to sleep", "That I sleep begins" one can have li ju fmygh [NULL-RAISER [me] [begin [sleep]]] "I begin to sleep" where "li" is a raisee complement (a semantic nonargument) of NULL-RAISER, and "fmygh" assigns its sleeper role to the nearest higher raisee. One can also have: ju li fmygh [begin [NULL-RAISER [me] [sleep]] "I begin to sleep", "'It begins me to sleep'" As for equi, subject equi like "I want to sleep" is handled as "I want that I sleep", analogous to how "I want you to sleep" is handled: "I want you to sleep", "I want that you sleep": mahw li fmyhgh lu [want [me] [sleep [you]]] li moh fmyhgh lu [NULL-RAISER [me] [want [sleep [you]]]] mahw li lu fmygh [want [me] [NULL-RAISER [you] [sleep]]] li moh lu fmygh [NULL-RAISER [me] [want [NULL-RAISER [you] [sleep]]]]] "I want to sleep", "I want that I sleep": li moh fmygh [NULL-RAISER [me] [want [sleep]]] For obj equi like PERSUADE, there is a lexically-specific construction whereby the predicate "persuade" in "I persuade you to sleep" has three arguments, "me", "you" and "THE PROPERTY OF BEING X SUCH THAT X sleeps" (capitalized elements are phonologically null), and the lexical entry for "persuade" specifies that the x variable in the 'outcome' argument is bound by the persuadee argument. --And.