From: "Trebor Jung" <treborjung@...> > Czech uses carons? I thought it just used some circumflexed consonants and > acuted vowels... Nope, caron, and lots of 'em too. They can be written on the following letters: C, D, E, L, N, R, S, T, Z. But in the case of D, L and T, they're often written as apostrophes. It marks palatization, except for alveolar sibilants where they change to palatoalveolars. > BTW how would one represent Czech r^ in X-Sampa? It's a fricativized version of [r], so it's [r_r] ([r] with a raising of the tongue). There might be a palatal element to it as well. It's derived from a palatized Slavic /r/; the same has the sound of [Z] (or [z`]) in Polish. In Russian it's a true palatalized rhotic, [r_j].