Peter Bleackley wrote: >I've been having difficulty translating the above phrase into Khangažyagon. >Would anyone like to post translations of it into their language, with >glosses, to see if I can get inspiration from them? ____________________ In hideous X-SAMPA, the Ithkuil translation would be: "XUwEks` q_hU?"wMmpIw SE_H Un"n= "UlaEz (the first, 2nd, and 4th words have falling tone, the third has high tone, and the last has falling-rising tone). A simplified morphological breakdown (i.e., showing non-default categories) is as follows: "XUwEks` = unbounded 3rd party + EFFECTUATIVE case + permissive enablement suffix = 'they allow (it) to happen (that)...' q_hU?"wMmpIw = AGGREGATIVE configuration + 'person' + ERGATIVE case + suffix indicating "foreign-ness" = 'group of foreign persons (makes some entity do something)' SE_H = speaker + unbounded addressee + mixed third parties + ABSOLUTIVE case = 'we (are made to do something)' Un"n= = COMPLEMENTARY valence = [indicates following verb has two participants acting/functioning in a complementary relationship (in this case ruling/oversight vs. submission/compliance/obedience)] "UlaEz = ASSOCIATIVE affiliation + 'submit to /comply with /obey governance or law' (derived from root L-Z 'rule/guide/manage/govern') = 'submit to rule of law (of someone)' Thus, loosely: 'They allow the foreigners to make us submit to their [i.e., the foreigners'] rule.' --John Q.