Thanks, Mark! Yes, I see what you mean: I should have used sentences rather than individual words in the glosses, and/or, glossed more straightforwardly, e.g. dog-past-proxmimate. Having decided that nouns should carry the tense marker in a clause, one could communicate other information, (aspect would be only one example) by varying the choice of arguments that take the tense marker. e.g. SUBJECT W/ TENSE and OBJECT W/O TENSE = SIMPLE ASPECT SUBJECT W/ TENSE and OBJECT W/ TENSE = PERFECTIVE ASPECT SUBJECT W/O TENSE and OBJECT W/ TENSE = HABITUAL ASPECT But what about intransitive verbs in this nonce-grammar? They're no problem in simple aspect. As for perfective and habitual aspect, one could add a dummy object to the sentence to carry the tense marker. But what about ditransitive verbs? One could mark the "third" (i.e. not the subject and not the object) argument with tense whenever the subject (or, alternatively, the object) is marked for tense. On the other hand, one could dispense with ditransitive verbs altogether. On the other hand, one could expand the number of aspects by allowing dummy "third" arguments. Jim G.