From: "Nik Taylor" <yonjuuni@...> > Danny Wier wrote: > *Voiced* aspirates? I didn't realize Chinese ever had those kinds of > sounds. T'ang Dynasty Chinese did. It had voiceless plain, voiceless aspirate and voiced aspirate stops and affricates, so there were triads of ph/p/bh, th/t/dh, tsh/ts/dz etc. Old Chinese (reconstructed of course) apparently had unaspirated voiced as well. In Mandarin, tone 2 (rising) usually corresponds to former voiced aspirates. Some modern Chinese languages like Taiwanese have these triads, but usually as ph/p/b, etc. Cantonese and Taiwanese (as do Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese/On) keep the old syllable-final stops, all lost in Mandarin; syllable-final /m/ is also preserved, not converted to /n/ as in Mandarin. > Presumably. Both Korean and Japanese have a considerable > Chinese-derived vocabulary, which often shows some interesting sound > changes, like Japanese ryou, Korean yang. Other than /j/, the sound > changes have caused no shared phones between the two. :-) The original > form was something like *ryang, Korean has a /r/ -> 0/#_(i,j) change, > and Japanese had /N/ -> /u/ (or sometimes /i/), and later /au/ -> /o:/. Kinda like how 'two' and 'twice', which was _nji3_ in T'ang Chinese, is now _er4_ in Mandarin, _yi6_ in Cantonese, _ni_ or _ji_ in Sino-Japanese, and _i_ in Sino-Korean.