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(Yoo hoo, I'm baaack..., still have some catching up to do in the Archive) Charlie wrote: > In your various conlangs how do you express the concepts: > 1. to have just > and > 2. to be about to > Kash has the particle mende 'already; all over, finished' which as an invariant can indicate the perfect tenses-- mende manahan 'I have eaten'. Any tense marking goes on the main verb: mende manahansa 'I had eaten'. It can also function as a verb, 'be done, finished' but usu. only in 3d person-- yamende 'it's all done/over/finished', caus. rumbende 'to finish s.t.' (there are other synonyms for 'finish', preferred because they avoid the awkward/repetitious ?* "mende yamende" 'it has finished'). But to answer your question: 'to have just...' uses reduplicated mende-- either mende-mende or memende: mende-mende manahan 'I have just eaten' (I think it could also mean 'I have (just?) finished eating'--this is uncovering an unexplored area); mende-mende yahorem 'he/she has just died'. Again, tense markers go on the main verb: memende yahoremsa 'he had just died'. As for 'be about to'... well, you've just uncovered another gap. Bah. "More research is needed". There is invariant _poro_ 'be going to...' but that's not quite the same.