INTRODUCING Tristan's Amazing Future English Oil, INCORPORATING his patented Orthographical-Reform Free Method! Conversing at length in this language five times a day could improve the health of even the most ailed person! Use it twice a day for your continued health. This is meant to be possible/reasonable, but no-one said anything about likely. Obviously it's pretty compatible with modern English... sometimes the std orthography bit reads pretty much like my youngest brother telling a story anyway... (Not all mind, I'm trying to make a future language here after all.) Abbr: PPr: plural present SPr: singular present DEF: definite INDIC: indicative A brief summary of some morphology/grammar: Note that the word order has a greater flexibility than modern English (the focus can be fronted without any difficulty, for instance), but by far the most common order is SVO. Nouns: s~z~@z marks the singular subject; the plural subject is s@~z@~@ but may be the same as the singular. The plural non-subject is usually undifferentiated from the singular non-subject, the biggest exception being in irregular nouns. Pronouns: The language is pro-drop, so these don't crop up as frequently as in MnE---don't be confused by the apparent commonality of pronouns in the text, they're verbal inflexions. As with Subj. Other Sing Pl. Sing. Pl. 1st me we us us 2nd you youse you youse 3rd they thase em ems Verbs: Here when generalisation occurs it tends to be from plural to singular rather than vice versa, but the distinction is more solid than in the nouns. 1st 2nd 3rd S. Pl. S. Pl. S. Pl. Past 7wz- w@d- Gu:- G@d- iwz- v@d- I was we'd you were you'd * they'd Present 7m- we- G@- G@z@ @s- ve- I'm we're you're youse're * they're Future aw- wi- GVn@ i- va- I'll we'll you're gonna * they'll * /@s/ and /i/ are derived from both 'he' and 'it'-based forms; /@s/ is also very close to the natural evolution of 'she's', which was /s/. Thus one mostly sees the pronoun for the appropriate (natural) gender chosen, hence: _he was killing_ /iwzkiwn/, _she's die_ /@sdAi/, _it'll flying_ /iflAin/. Because I abhor regularity, however, /7i/+ing -> /7wn/. -ing /@n, n/ is suffixed to active verbs; stative verbs (incl. adjectives) are unsuffixed. (Note that narratives are mostly in the present tense, rather than the past, so the tense is translated accordingly.) A brief summary of the sound changes: Consonants: just a few brief comments: /j/ developed two ways: after consonants it palatised the consonant; otherwise it become /G/. /tS dZ S Z/ become /t; d; s; z;/ too. Word final clusters are often simplified, but with schwa-dropping clusters also become more frequent. Vowels made more symmetrical: i i: y: u: u e e: ei 2: 7 7: oi o: a a: ai Showing derivations: AuE FE AuE FE AuE FE I i u u I@ i: u@ u: Ii ei u\: y: oi oi e e e: e: 8: 2: o: o: & e O 7 &: e: O: 7: &O e: Ou\ oi &i ai Ai 7: a a a: a: /u:/ is of infrequent occurrence (it doesn't derive from current AuE non-diphthongal /u\:.@/ as in 'pure'). /y:/ may be pronounced [y], making the system more symmetrical. Nouns beginning with vowels usually get an extra n- or r\- at the start if it wasn't lost, most other remaining initial vowels get an extra r\. Generally unstressed initial vowels were lost in closed-class words and remained otherwise, but exceptions abound. The North Wind and the Sun -------------------------- Standard Orthography/An informal orthography/IPA/morphemic translation. The informal orthography is meant to be at a similar level to what common SMS/email spelling is like, but I never got the hang of it. It's also meant to have spelling mistakes to give you a better understanding of the phonemic associations. Note that the IPA consonants are mostly in terms of todays with regard to the value of r\ and voiced/aspirated distinctions. I've made no decisions regarding these. The North Wind's and the Sun's they're rarguing bout who's most hard, The north winds and the sun verarguen bout whos most hard v@no:f windz @n v@sanz ve"r\a:g;@n be:t yz mois a:d DEF+north wind-SUBJ and DEF+sun-SBJ 3PPr-argue-ACT about who-SUBJ most strong when a traveller's come along wrapped in a warm coat. when a chavvelers cum along wrap 'na worm coat wen @t;evlaz kam @l7N r\ep n@wo:m koid when INDEF-traveller-SUBJ come-BARE along wrapped in+INDEF+warm coat ('Come' is an irregular verb that does not inflect in the past or present tenses.) They're rargeeing that the one who's he's making the traveller therargen vou the one who's its maiken the chaveler ve"r\a:g@n ve: v@wan yz @smaik@n v@t;evla 3PPr-agree-ACT that DEF+one who-SUBJ 3SPr-make-ACT DEF-traveller taking his coat off they'll consider him to hard most. taken his coat off vuconsider him t'hard most taik@n @skoit 7f vak@nsidar\@m ta:d mois take-ACT his+coat off 3PFt-consider+him INF+strong most So the Northerly's he's blowing hard as they can, So the Norvelies its blolen hard as thay can soi v@n7v@liz @sbl7wn a:d @z vai ken So DEF-north_wind-SUBJ 3SPr-blow-ACT hard as he can but the more he's blowing, but the more he's blowen b@ v@ mo: @sbl7wn the more the traveller's he's folding his coat round em. the more the travellers its fowen its coat roun em v@ mo: v@t;evlaz @sf7wn @skoit re:n@m the more DEF-traveller-SUBJ 3SPr-fold-ACT his+coat around+him Eventually, he's giving up. ventually its given up vent;li @sgiv@n ap Then the Sun's he's shining out warmly, ven v@sanz @S7:n@n e:t wo:mli then DEF+sun-SUBJ 3SPr-shine-ACT out warmly and the traveller's he's taking his coat off. @n v@t;evlaz @staik@n @skoit 7f and DEF+traveller-SUBJ 3SPr-take-ACT his+coat off The North Wind's he was oblige to admit v@ no:f windz iwzabl7:d; t@mit that the sun's he was hard more. ve: v@ sanz iwza:d mo: (PS: In the area this language is spoken in, a north wind isn't particularly likely to make you pull your coat around you tighter, unless you really wanted to keep it and it was your only way of holding it. Northerlies tend to be hot and dry.) (PPS: There may be errors in the above, I speak English, not Tristan's Amazing Future English Oil.) -- Tristan.