Okay, I've been developing a language that uses a trigger system and have decided that there will be no "to be." State verbs, particularly, replace its role. Eg, He is good would be translated as He goods. However, I have come across the problem when addressing infinitives. How, exactly, would a sentence such as "To defend is to attack" for example be handled in this case? Both words are infinitives, leaving no place for a verb to exist. Is there a grammatical way around this problem? This is my first true conlang and this seems to be a big problem. Any help would be much appreciated. To be safe, I'll provide a little background information on Valruzi. Valruzi utilizes a trigger system, like tagalog, in which nouns are marked as either trigger, oblique, genitive, agentive, or patientive. the case or role of the trigger, or focus, is marked on the verb. This eliminates the need for active/passive or transitive/intransitive. The language also has eliminated to verb, "to have" in a sense - translating sentences such as "I have a car" as "My cars exists" (dubbed existence sentences). Gerunds and participles are also utilized extensively. In addition there are three aspects that CAN be infixed: inchoative (entering a state), inceptive (beginning an activity), or cessative (stopping). Three tenses: present, future, and past are used. whew, sorry if that's a bit lengthy, but this is my first post and I decided to play it safe and give some background info on the subject. thank you, Alman.