Given "after", "before", "when", "while", "since", "until" and longer terms such as "from now on", "from this point forward" etc., how can we collapse them? Before time T, an event happened Until time T, an event was undergoing Since the difference here seems to be between punctual/durative, which can be marked on the verb, I collapse before and until. Same for since and after and "from time x into the future"-rewritings. "While" can be used to mark that something happened at the same time or during something else happened: while X was happening, Y was also happening. Not collapsible with before/until or after/since. When "when" is synonymous with "once" as in "once we're there", "as soon as we're there", it does the work of "after" with the added meaning of immediacy, which can be separated out. "When" can also mean "at, during or around some time T" as in "when the gods wandered the earth, ...", "when I was younger than you are now, ...", "when I'm sixty-four, ...", without the meaning of immediacy. This then points to a word left out from the overview, "during", which was also mentioned for "while". We have: before, up to time T (before, until) after, from time T (after, since) overlapping in time, at time T (while, during, when) In addition there are lotsa of words for time that does not attempt too join clauses in any way, like "late", "last", "previous", "now", "then" etc., these could also be interesting to collapse, especially in that words like "last" has at least two meanings: "previous" and "final". t.