Arthaey Angosii wrote: > Know how these things go, my question is "What is the anadewism of > inherently passive verbs," *not* whether they exist elsewhere. ;) > > Are there other languages that have verbs whose subject is a patient, > not an agent, with no markings at all besides lexical choice of the > verb? > > Searching through the archives, I came across mention of Hawaiian's > "loa'a" stative verbs: > > Emaelivpeith David Peterson vek Mon, 8 Apr 2002 02:44:40 EDT kek: > > Also, there's the matter of loa'a verbs that are inherently passive and > > that you add a causative prefix to to make active. Compare: > > > > Pau ka hana iaia. (The work was finished by him.) > > Ho'opau 'oia ka hana. (He finished the work--ho'o is the causative.) > There was for a long time debate about the "passivity" of Malay/Indonesian "verbs" (19th/early-20th C), and perhaps by extension Austronesian langs. generally. It might have been better argued in terms of stative vs. active, which is how I tend to view it: kerja-nya (sudah) selesai work-the (already=perf.) finished "The work is/has been finished" *saya (sdh) selesai (could only mean "I'm finished, over with" and would probably be considered odd if not nonsense by a native speaker. saya (sdh) me-nyelesai-kan kerjanya (meng+s.. > meny-) I .... act- base caus. the work "I (have) finished the work" OTOH, kapal (sdh) sampai 'the ship (has) arrived)' but also saya sdh.sampai 'I (have) arrived' Quite a few "verbs" can behave like this; yet others are clearly active/transitive or intransitive. "Beri" 'give' in correct speech requires either the meng- (active) or di- (passive) prefix. (Colloq. speech can drop the meng- pfx.-- ia beri uang kepadamu "he'll give money to you'-- but not the di- pfx.) My impression of Fijian (from reading the dictionary) is that some stative/adjectival forms can be essentially passive (like 'finished') and require some prefix/suffix to make them active.