On 3/21/06, Roger Mills <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
> Preliminary thoughts...
> > > 1) anyway, anyhow, at any rate, in any case, in any event
> > > 2) as a result, consequently
> > > 3) besides, also, as well, in any case, likewise, too
> > > 4) furthermore, in addition, also
> Can be conflated. Not sure "in any case" belongs here.
> > > 5) hence, therefore, thus
> might be conflated with #2
> > > 6) indeed, so, and so, and then
> "indeed", esp. "and indeed," isn't quite the same; closer to "truly, in
> fact"
> > > 7) instead, alternatively, as an alternative, or else, rather
> > > 8) in the meantime, meanwhile
> > > 9) moreover, what is more
> can be conflated with #4
> >
> > (Jim Henry added:)
> >
> > 10a)  that, such that
> elmininate plain old "that"--essentially meaningless IMO, unless I'm missing
> something. Maybe add "so that...", perhaps "in such a way that..."
> > 10b) in case, if, in the event that [I will set an extra place if he
> > comes.]
> Could add "supposing..." here.
> And what about "as if..."? seemingly? apparently?
> > 10c) whether, if [Do you know whether/if he will come?]
> Whether seems always to imply the negative alternative; also = even if
> > 11) for, in order to, for the purpose of
> perhaps to be conflated with 10a?
> Perhaps add: 12) on condition (that), provided (that)...
> What about:
> -- "unless? (= if...not or provided...not) "let's go to a movie, unless you
> have a better idea"
> -- except ("I like John, except he drinks too much")

"except" is to "but" as "in that" (see below) is to "because".

> -- inasmuch as (very formal) = since (causal), because

Roughly equivalent to "in that", maybe?

> -- until, to the point that...
> Then there's Engl. "in that", though it's always rather mystified me. I feel
> it's sort-of like "because". Can't think of a decent ex. offhand.

Googling provides several examples in the wild:


It wasn't until he went to Florida that his signature evolved in that
he left bodies that we could find things on, like bite marks.

Vronsky's life was particularly happy in that he had a code of
principles, which defined with unfailing certitude what he ought and
what he ought not to do.

He's also remarkable, in my experience, in that he seems more willing
to use straight-out raw emotionalism than any president I have seen

She is like Nora, in that she has grown up pampered and is at a
considerable disadvantage when trying to deal with the outside world.

Rabbit (Ferguson) gives us a strong presence on the floor in that she
is a bigger guard that can score and rebound.

Julie particularly enjoys the variety of work involved in the job, in that she
has to rotate around different departments every two or three years.


... So, yes, probably a restriction/hyponym of "because"; in
most of these sentences, the subordinate clause gives a
specific example to support the main clause.

> -- insofar as = as far as, to the extent that...

Maybe a restriction of "because" with a qualification that
the subordinate clause is only to some extent true.

> -- likely, probably, possibly (and presumably) different degrees of
> (un)certainty? yes I know, these are adverbs
> Expressing "as of (date,time)" or "on or before" = "no(t) later than..."
> could be problematical in a conlang (i.e. I have no idea how Kash would do
> it)

Hm... I think gzb would just use the same postposition here
it uses for "on/in/at/during" (temporal) for "as of (date/time)".
The different qualities (dynamic/static) of the attached
sentence would distinguish them as needed.  E.g.,

"On Saturday, we went to see Rock City."

"As of Saturday, we had only $300 in the bank."

I don't see why a conlang couldn't use the same adposition
in rendering both sentences.

"Not later than"... I'm not sure about yet.  Maybe a
negated postpositional phrase, e.g.,

hax-gla sq-i henx
seventeen-ORD.T after-at not
not after the seventeenth [of the month]

-- but this is ambiguous.

Jim Henry