Secondary predication is a phenomenon related to two of the suggestions given in the thread "Difficult clauses": "We spent all night talking about I can't remember what." "She bought I lost count how many kinds of cheese." Here's some examples: "They eat fish raw" = they eat fish, the fish being raw as they eat it "They eat fish naked" = they eat fish, they are naked while doing so The above are depictive secondary predications, the first on the object and the second on the subject. It might be possible to interpret them the other way around of course but in this example the semantics trump the syntax. There's a third type of secondary predication, the resultative: "Jane cooked the chicken hot" can mean: "Jane was hot while cooking the chicken" (depictive, subject) "The chicken was hot while Jane cooked it" (depictive, object) "The chicken became hot as a result of Jane cooking it" (resultative) English can use other things than adjectives as the second predicate though: "Jane cooked the chicken in a dreadful state" All three are missing from the grammar of my lang. How do non-IE languages do these; that is: make something with the same meaning? I'm looking at examples from Mongolian right now: http://coe-sun.kuis.ac.jp/coe/public/paper/outside/washio1.pdf AFMCL, it should be possible to do resultatives with serial verb constructions but as for depictives? Hmm.. Is this a hole in your grammars also? t.