Since the topic of revising languages has come up, I thought it might be a good time to review some of my recent work on Minza. I've been keeping a few different versions of the language, but eventually the plan is to pick one of them and incorporate any features from the other versions that I prefer. The set of distinctive phonemes is probably one feature of the language I can settle on without much trouble, so I'll start with that. Consonants A typical Minza variant has a set of consonants something like this: p b t d (tʃ dʒ) k ɡ m n ɲ/ŋ r f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ ɬ l Additions: Minza B adds ç (C) and ʝ (j\). Minza D replaces the post-alveolar ʃ (S) and ʒ (Z) with retroflex ʂ (s`)and ʐ (z`), and adds retroflex ɳ, ɭ, and ɬ̢ (i.e. a retroflex voiceless lateral fricative). Minza E and Minza F add a palatal lateral ʎ (L). Minza G, in addition to the retroflex series (but without the laterals) adds a whole set of palatalized consonants. Typical Minza versions have either ɳ (J) or ŋ (N), but not both. Some versions of Minza have had other affricates, like /ts/ or /dz/. I've been leaning towards considering [tS] and [dZ] as sequences of phonemes /t/ + /S/, /d/ + /Z/. Other than that, the final Minza consonant chart will probably look very similar to this. [N] and [J] may turn out to be allophones. The velar fricatives are not very distinctive and may end up merging with some of the other sounds (most likely /f/ with /x/ and /v/ or /N/ with /G/). The retroflex sounds keep wanting to come back, and I may end up either splitting the post-alveolar fricatives or replacing them with retroflex ones. Vowels: Here are some typical Minza vowels and diphthongs: i ʉ u iə ʉə uə ɛ ɵ ɔ ɛi ɵʉ ɔu a ai au Most Minza variants have a similar set of vowels, with the addition of æ and ɒ in Minza G. The diphthongs are more variable. Vowel length is distinctive in some but not all versions of Minza. I think, though, that diphthongs are more typically Minza-flavored than long vowels, so I may be replacing all long vowels with diphthongs.