I recall seeing a while back a web page or article that gave a short list of some of the uses which reduplication serves in languages around the world -- e.g. to indicate plurality, diminutive, augmentative, intensive, frequentative, habitual, etc. Now I can't find it. Does anyone know where this list might be? (I thought it was in the Wikipedia article on reduplication, but I don't see it, although they do give a few examples of its uses in various languages.) Second, does anyone know of any theory dealing with reduplication where both the base and the reduplicant have some sort of *semantic* value and are related syntactically or morphologically? See, I don't even have the vocabulary to ask that question clearly. Unfortunately, I can't think of a really good example right now, but a contrived one would be _book book_, meaning a book *about* books.* In that phrase, both instances of _book_ carry semantic information which is related in a grammatical way, and the whole phrase _book book_ differs from _book_ in a substantially *semantic* way, rather than a purely grammatical way (like it would if reduplication could form plurals in English). * Admittedly, I don't think anyone would say "book book", except in cases of *another* kind of reduplication, where the meaning would be "an actual book on paper, as opposed to an ebook or audio book". I am not sure whether *that* kind of reduplication changes the semantics or not. I suppose I could just call the phrase "book about books" an example of reduplication, since it doesn't seem to be integral to the definition that the base and reduplicant stand immediately adjacent; then I could avoid the mess about whether someone would say it.