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2009/11/19 Sai Emrys <[log in to unmask]>:

> Of course, the stupidly naïve way to address this as a conlanger is to
> simply ban copulas, but generally that just means you actually have a
> zero copula (like e.g. Russian, Arabic, and Black English).

I've consciously done that, and gloss an omitted "to be" as a
zero-copula accordingly:

   Ang Mahān Ø bedangas.
   AGT Mahān (be) farmer.PAT.
   "Mahān is a farmer."

   Adanyareng Ø palayas silvyam vās.
   that_one.PAT:inan (be) joy.PAT see-PTCP 2sg.PAT.
   "It is a pleasure to see you."

   Prantanreng Ø, yomayam soyang yomoyyam.
   question-AGT.inan (be), be-PTCP or be-NEG-PTCP.
   "The question is, to be or not to be."

   Yomayang edaya tamala.
   be-1S.AGT here yesterday.
   "I was here yesterday."

   Nilyang, kada yomayang
   think-1SG.AGT, thus be-1SG.AGT
   "I think, therefore I am."

Carsten