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2009/11/19 David E <[log in to unmask]>

> In Feayran I wanted to get away from both an overt copula and a zero
> copula,
> so I ended up using Lakhota-ish stative verbs. I also got some nice results
> from adapting the Spanish ser/estar system; I have one stative verb form
> for
> inherent qualities, and another for non-inherent qualities (i.e., "Bob is a
> stupid person" vs. "Bob is/was acting stupidly"). So, my copula is built
> more for attribute assignment. However, the identity/subset/superset idea
> is
> rather cool. I've run into some trouble, actually, because my copula
> functions don't include the more typical "identity" assignment--I'm still
> trying to find an acceptable equivalent for structures like "He's the one I
> told you about!"
>

In Classical Arithide (my conlang), the essive case is used for this
property of the copula:

Nās dyll-osi-on-e.
3psg-TOP tell\IPFV-PAT-ANIM-ESS
He is the one I was telling you about.

Cl. Ar. cannot have a zero copula because the nominative coupled with the
obligatory topical (which can be formally omitted but is understood) would
be the beginning of a sentence. This parsing is thanks to its SOV word order
and topic-prominence.

The sentence "Nās dyllosion", using the nominative instead of the essive,
would mean "He (said/thought/saw/heard etc.) the guy I told you about (do
something else)".

Eugene