> *a > a
> *'a > 'a:
> *a: > a:
> *'a: > 'a::

This looks to me like *two* phonemic vowel lengths, with both lengths
longer in stress syllables. IE, I would analyze this:

/a/ -> [a] unstressed, [a:] stressed
/a:/ -> [a:] unstressed, [a::] stressed

Is there any position where all three lengths can contrast? The same
question would apply to the overlong consonants.

JS Bangs
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