On Sat, 2011-02-12 at 13:21 +0000, Richard Littauer wrote: > So, I'm curious. In light of this, how many of you work in borrowings from > non-native phonologies/lexicons into your conlangs? Is it necessary to set > up several different families and related languages in order to have a > realistic conlang? What do you guys think about this sort of thing? The age > of the language and contact is of course a factor. If you just have a language with no etymologies for its vocabulary, you can presume that some words are originally non-native. I like to create new members of existing families, so I have to take borrowing into account. The Romance Liburnese has plenty of loans, ancient and modern: cidrin 'yellow' and corela 'girl' from Greek; bogat 'rich' and criv 'dishonest' from Slavonic; ascensur 'lift' and banca 'bank' from Italian; margarina from French; computadur from English. The Semitic Paladhesi has loans from the pre-Greek language of the Aegean: parmak 'drug', thider 'iron', pilan '(baked) brickwork'. I shall also add a few from Greek as well. Tengol (Nostratic, medieval Central Asia) has dutuŋ 'governor' and bit 'pen' from Chinese; panet 'sugar' from Tocharian; kartar 'mule' and mocak 'bishop' from Persian; nom 'religion' from Greek; eš 'donkey' from Armenian.