If you go to the following pages you will the explanation Roger Mills gave about Malagasy http://westernlinguistics.ca/afla/meetings/afla5/abstracts/pearson_resultative_ complements_and_non_active_voice_morphology_in_malagasy.pdf http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/grads/pearson/dissertation/chapter2.pdf http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/grads/pearson/dissertation/chapter2.pdf Concerning Japanese, Basque and Turkish, they have all similar non-subject relativization structures: Watashi wa osushi wo tsukuttandesu. I made sushi. Watashi wa osushi wo tsukutta ndesu. I topic marker sushi direct object marker past form of formal level marker "tsukuru" to make, to prepare Watashi ga tsukutta osushi wa oishii ndesu. I relative made sushi delicious sentence subject marker or Watashi no tsukutta osushi wa oishii ndesu. The sushi I made (or The sushi THAT I made) is delicious. I relative made sushi delicious. sentence subject marker Sono hito wa hiroi apaato ni sunde iru ndesu. That person wide apartment locative present perfect formal level marker (he, she) of "sumu": to live, to dwell He/she lives in a large apartment. Sono hito ga sunde iru apaato wa hiroi ndesu. The aparment "where" s/he lives is large. Relative sentences in Japanese work like adjectives, that's why they come before the nouns. In my conlang there is no relativizer and the verb becomes a tense-marked adjective. Riema robazei zhaminao beirievobeirei. Yesterday a bread delicious I.ed.prepare.ed = I made a delicious bread yesterday. Zaminao muebeitoa yu robao riema beilei revobeirao. Delicious it.is the bread yesterday I.by made/prepared = The bread I made yesterday is delicious. vobeirue: to prepare, to cook, to bake (-ue: infinitive marker, vobeir- = stem) robao: bread (-ao, -a- : neuter noun marker) -rie- ... -ei: past tense circumfix re-: past tense marker in relativized verbal adjective form -zei: object marker (accusative case) bei- : masculine I riema: yesterday zaminao: delicious -lei: passive voice agent marker, relative and embedded sentence subject marker; by means of, through, via (ablative case) mue-: it beitue: to be (stem: beit-) -oa: present tense suffix yu: neuter definite article, "the" -ao: neuter adjective marker Loyueka valomazei runao moasovieto yei reisie. The student will do a difficult homework later on. later homework hard he.fill-in.will the student Runao valomazei loyueka yei reisilei vosovitao mozaroa yueno moasie. hard homework later the student.by will.filled-in she.thinks mother he.of The student's mother thinks difficult the homework he is going to do. loyueka: later valomao: homework (neuter noun marker: -ao, -a- -zei: object marker (accusative case) runao: difficut, hard (neuter adjective marker: -ao) moa-: he mo-: she -s-: linking consonant ovitue: to fill in, to fill out (ovit-, oviet-: stem) -o: future tense marker yei: masc. def. article, the reisie: common (=masc. & fem.) noun, "student" (common noun marker: -ie, -i- ) zarue: to think, to have an opinion, to deem, to consider yueno: femine noun mother -sie: genitive suffix -lei: passive voice agent marker, relative and embedded sentence subject marker; by means of, through, via (ablative case) vo-: future tense marker in relativized verbal adjective form Oja yeisa majieluzei moakoaroa yei kaboa. here now magazine he.reads the boy Now the boy is reading a magazine here. Mueriesoabitei yu majilue oja yeisa yei kaboalei lakoarao. It.disappeared the magazine here now the boy.by read. The magazine the boy is reading now here disappeared. la-: present tense marker in relativized verbal adjective form See also: http://www.buber.net/Basque/Euskara/lang.lt.html http://www.nabasque.org/Pages/Euskara_Laka.htm http://www.ehu.es/HEB/Mikel/Adam&Mikel_Master2010_11/Papers%20for%20pr esentations/Carreiras%20et%20al%202010%20relatives.pdf The old Brazilian indigenous language "Old Tupi" had no relativizer as well. It used a noun with a passive prefix (emi-, temi-, remi-) plus tense suffixes (zero suffix for present tense, -pûera/-mbûera/-ûera/-gûera for past tense and - rama/-ndama/-ûama/-gûama/-ama for future tense) preceded by a possessive pronoun or noun in genitive order (noun + noun) to non-subject relativizing sentences, and it used the suffix -saba/-aba/-ndaba for subject relativizing sentences or even for non-subject relativizing sentences. îebyr+saba Apé xé îebyraba i porang. Path my "returning way/thing" it beautiful. The path I go/come back through is beautiful. îebyr+saba+pûera Apé xé îebyrabûera i porang. Path my "past returning way/thing" it beautiful. The path I went/came back through is beautiful. îebyr+saba+rama Apé xé îebyrabûama i porang. Path my "future returning way/thing" it beautiful. The path I will go/come back through is beautiful. Mamõpe ygara nde ruba remimotara (remi- +potar+ -a)? Where boat your father wanting to want Where is the boat your father wants? Mamõpe ygara nde ruba remimotarûera? Where boat your father past wanting Where is the boat your father wanted? Mamõpe ygara nde ruba remimotarama? Where boat your father future wanting Where is the boat your father will/may want?