Encoding the language of a bibliographic reference is easy: put xml:lang= on the <bibl>, <biblStruct>, or <biblFull>. As for the language of the document the reference points to, I do not have an answer for you off the top of my head. But I do not think you should use xml:lang=YYY on the <title> element to indicate that the item so titled written in language YYY. The semantics of xml:lang= on <title> are clear: the *title* is in YYY. The item so titled may also be written in YYY (bibliographic items usually have a title in the same language as their contents), but it's not a given. I don't know how a printed bibliography lists language (I'm sure someone on this list will know :-), but I suspect the name of the language is given, perhaps preceded by some boilerplate phrase like "in". In which case, I suppose you could put a <lang> with a norm= attribute in there. > does anyone know how to properly encode the language of a > bibliographic reference or better, the language of the document the > reference points to? > > Regardless of weather using <biblStruct>, <bibl> or <biblFull> > there seems to be no genuine element for this task. The closest > thing I came up with so far is to assign an @xml:lang attribute to > the <title> element of the bibliographic description and take this > as an indication of the language of the document itself. > > However, I would be much more happy with a "<langUsage><language > indent="...">...</language><langUsage>"-way of doing this.