On 2011-07-17 19:02, Roger Mills wrote: > The other Germanic languages have other word(s) for > "wheel", but Engl. has_wheel_, YFYI Scandinavian _hjól/hjul_ is actually < _*hweȝwla-_ < _*kʷekʷlo_, but your argument is of course valid all the same! BTW the German word _Rat_ (or perhaps rather Dutch _rad_) 'wheel' has been borrowed into Scand. to mean 'steering-wheel'. Hopefully that doesn't make someone 2KY from now think that was the original meaning of the root (it's of course cognate with 'rotate' and meant just that! :-) The words for 'fire' in IE langs actually exemplify how synonymy spoils the neat "different roots, earlier split" idea: Latin _ignis_ and Sanskrit _agni-_[^1] come from a PIE word for 'fire'; Scand. _eld(r)/ild(r)_ comes from a verb 'burn' cognate with (ultimately Greek) _aether_, while Greek _pyr_, Engl. _fire_, German _Feuer_ come from a word for 'flame'. BTW _flame_ (from Latin _flamma < *bhlagma-_) comes from a verb for 'blaze, consume in fire', and is cognate with Engl. _black_, so although fire has been known and used by hominids since well before the split-up of IE (probably for more than a million years) you have a convoluted maze of cognates and synonyms in this field in IE. My professor quipped that the main reasons glottochronology doesn't work are taboos and poets ;-), and fire was both sacred and taboo -- as evidenced by Zoroastrianism (which BTW uses a word for their sacred fires which IIUC belongs to the _aether_ group), and the subject of poetry -- as evidenced by the Rigveda which begins with a hymn to Agni/Fire which was recited every morning when the hearth was rekindled. /bpj [^1]: Of course only one among several Sanskrit words for 'fire'!