On 2011-07-17 19:02, Roger Mills wrote:

> The other Germanic languages have other word(s) for
> "wheel", but Engl. has_wheel_,

YFYI Scandinavian _hjól/hjul_ is actually < _*hweȝwla-_
< _*kʷekʷlo_, but your argument is of course valid all
the same! BTW the German word _Rat_ (or perhaps rather
Dutch _rad_) 'wheel' has been borrowed into Scand. to
mean 'steering-wheel'. Hopefully that doesn't make
someone 2KY from now think that was the original
meaning of the root (it's of course cognate with
'rotate' and meant just that! :-)

The words for 'fire' in IE langs actually exemplify how
synonymy spoils the neat "different roots, earlier
split" idea: Latin _ignis_ and Sanskrit _agni-_[^1]
come from a PIE word for 'fire'; Scand. _eld(r)/ild(r)_
comes from a verb 'burn' cognate with (ultimately
Greek) _aether_, while Greek _pyr_, Engl. _fire_,
German _Feuer_ come from a word for 'flame'. BTW
_flame_ (from Latin _flamma < *bhlagma-_) comes from a
verb for 'blaze, consume in fire', and is cognate with
Engl. _black_, so although fire has been known and used
by hominids since well before the split-up of IE
(probably for more than a million years) you have a
convoluted maze of cognates and synonyms in this field
in IE. My professor quipped that the main reasons
glottochronology doesn't work are taboos and poets ;-),
and fire was both sacred and taboo -- as evidenced by
Zoroastrianism (which BTW uses a word for their sacred
fires which IIUC belongs to the _aether_ group), and
the subject of poetry -- as evidenced by the Rigveda
which begins with a hymn to Agni/Fire which was recited
every morning when the hearth was rekindled.


[^1]: Of course only one among several Sanskrit words
for 'fire'!