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Hallo conlangers!

On Thu, 29 Mar 2012 10:49:34 -0400 Roman Rausch wrote:

> An addendum regarding that and Early Qenya: In the mentioned source, Tolkien
> actually lists nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative as 'cases', but
> inessive _-sse_, ablative _-llo_, allative _-nta, -tta_, partitive _-inen_,
> manner _-ndon_ as 'adverbial suffixes'. About the differences between them
> he writes:
> 
> "(i) They (the adv. suffixes) naturally cannot be all formed from every noun
> and adjective; (ii) they are never added, except in verse, to an adjective
> in agreement with an expressed noun: where a qualified noun receives one of
> these endings (a somewhat archaic mode) the adjective usually precedes
> uninflected (except rarely for plural) and is virtually a loose compound"
> 
> In other words, the cases are word-marking with agreement:
> _ni heps-ine [...] i mailin-e-n losse-li-n_ 'I bound [...] the beautiful
> flowers'
> I bind-PST ART beautiful-PL-ACC flower-PL-ACC
> 
> The adv. suffixes are group-marking:
> _taara kas-i-sse(-n)_ 'on the high tops'
> high head-PL-INE(-PL)

Just like Tocharian!  Tocharian has three "primary cases" (nom.,
obl., gen.) and several "secondary cases" (different in Toch. A
and Toch. B; formed by adding suffixes to the oblique form).
While primary cases are word-marked, secondary cases are group-
marked, with all but the final word in the NP taking the oblique:

(1) Tocharian A
    yâtälwâtses tsopats-tampes nermits.inäs wrassaśśäl
    powerful-OBL mighty-OBL artificial-OBL being-PL-COM
    'with the powerful, mighty, artificial beings'

(2) Tocharian B
    kektseñ reki palskosa
    body-OBL word-OBL thought-PERL
    'by body, word and thought'

(B. W. Fortson, _Indo-European Language and Culture_, 2nd edition,
p. 407)

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