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On 11/19/2012 10:13 AM, Nikolay Ivankov wrote:

> And, adding to the pool:
> sun: sky eye (B.I.)
> hair: grass belong head (Tok Pisin (?))
> monkey: father of sin (Farsi)
> (electric) train: lighting chariot (Jap.)
> oxigen: sour bearer (Rus.)

That's also the meaning of the Greek words that "oxygen" was derived 
from. German "Sauerstoff" similarly means something like "sour stuff". 
You see a similar pattern with hydrogen (German Wasserstoff, Russian 
водород) and carbon (German Kohlenstoff, Russian углерод).

Japanese has words like 亜鉛 "aen" for "zinc" (I don't know the meaning 
of 亜, but 鉛 is "lead") and 白金 "hakkin" for "platinum" ("white gold").

Speaking of lead, Japanese has 鉛筆 "enpit(s)u" for "pencil" (from 
Chinese "qiānbǐ", where 筆 "bǐ" is a pen or a writing brush). So 
apparently Chinese and Japanese didn't have a word for graphite, or they 
may have misinterpreted the English word "lead" for the graphite in a 
pencil to assume that it was actually made of "lead" the metal.

So you could have

pencil: lead pen

but a better approach might be something like

pencil: graphite (carbon / coal) pen

although I don't know a natlang precedent.