Neo Gu, I find your XVOS language quite interesting. I have a bit of a fondness for the VOS word order. Perhaps it may be useful to compare and contrast what you’re doing with some other VOS languages which have been discussed here before. For instance, I believe that Txtana had: Verb Object Tense Subject Prepositional Phrase order, or at least it did for much of its life. Here’s Txtana: http://fiziwig.com/conlang/thirty_day.html Also, there’s the Elkarîl language whose order is: Action Experiencer Causer Purpose Intender. We have such examples as: Broke window hand escape prisoner. “The prisoner, intending to escape, broke the window with his hand.” Faceted jewel hammer gift Stormcloud. “Stormcloud used a hammer to facet a jewel as a gift.” Hit head Moonlight’s apple mischief child. “The child, acting out of mischief, made an apple fall on Moonlight’s head.” Peirced heart ktuvok’s sword murder fighter. The fighter killed the ktuvok with his sword. Here’s Elkarîl: http://www.zompist.com/elkaril.htm I am especially intrigued by this word order since that is the word order that Khlìjha has. Khlìjha, however, has no Kēlen-esque particles at the beginning of a clause or sentence, but rather relies upon a variety of affixes and phrases to indicate mode and mood. Moreover, Khlìjha was never designed to have this word order, but rather, at some period during its long, long genesis, it just decided upon it. Of the 46 examples of sentences of phrases that you’ve provided, I find that 24 of them are identical to the word order of Khlìjha, 4 of them are similar if one squints a bit and hops on one foot, and 18 of them are quite different. When I have some time, I’m going to take a closer look at what you’ve written.