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                Im not going to go into any detail with the Khljha
grammar.  Instead Ive just translated the 46 sentences or phrases of XVOS
into mine own language.  For some of them Ive offered different
translations.  The words kinda or yes or no or possibly or ???
after each sample phrase was just my way of guessing how close the XVOS
word order corresponds to Khljha.

                This was just for fun.  Nothing scientific about it.

                Happy new year.



*1  impersonal      M1 rain                 "It rains."   Kinda*



*Tsarw-yepoar.*

Rain-weather

*It rains.*



*Ei pejor tsrwi.*

It while rain

*It rains.*



*2   existence       M1 cats                 "There are cats."   Kinda*



*lu fhsya.*

They.exist kittens

*There are kittens.*



*Fhesy-yufhang.*

Kittens-there.is

*There are kittens.*



*3   univalent       M2 run dog              "The dog runs."   Yes*



*Lwemlntamet fhensya.*

Run kitten

*The kitten runs.*



*Koaqing lwemlntamet fhensya.*

In.his run kitten

*The kitten (naturally) runs.*



*4   definition      M2 dog Fido             "Fido is a dog."   Yes*



*Fhensya xhlir Twtsa.*

Kitten through Struggles

*Struggles happens to be a kitten.*



*5   transitive      M3 break window boy     "The boy breaks the window."  
Yes*



*Fhrqa khlutais-pwar xhwfhwiyur ser.*

Break window-absolutive lad through

*The boy breaks the triangular-and-circular-window.*



*6  relational      M3 inside house cat     "The cat is in the house."  
Yes*



*Athwn-aloi fhensya.*

Igloo-in kitten

*The kitten is in the igloo.*



*Pljerng athwn-aloi fhensya.*

Span igloo-in kitten

*The kitten is in the igloo.*



*7   possessive      M3 mother John Mary     "Mary is John's mother."  
Yes*



*Ton-ing Alixhlnye kongai Qeretrta-yan.*

Mother-singular Alixhlnye honoured Qeretrta-ergative

*Honoured Qeretrta is Alixhlnyes Mother.*



*8   trivalent       M4 give book boy woman  "The woman gave the boy a
book."  Yes*



*Tunamat fhsa-ypwar xhwofhwiyur-swaor Toen-an-ing.*

Give book-absolutive lad-to Mother-ergative-singular

*His Mother gave an hexagonal-book to the lad.*



*9  M3 see I S3 break window boy    "I saw the boy break the window."  Yes
*



*Paje-thothtqi qr xhr p fhrqa khlutais-pwar xhwfhwiyur ser.*

It-see in past I break window-absolutive lad through

*I saw that the lad broke the triangular-and-circular-window.*



*10   M2 permit S2 go you             "You may go."   No*



*Syta khljhi t-xhni-xing.*

Go permission you-with-singular

*You may go.*



Many such modal idioms:



*Syta trl teir-xhni.*

Go license you-with-singular

*You may go.*



*Syeta-yqras t-xing.*

Go-may you-singular

*You may go.*



-*eqras* really has the meaning of may, might rather than permitted to,
though.



*11   M3 want I S3 see John elephant  "I want John to see the elephant." 
Yes*



*Paje-fhlqang qr p p thothtqi fhapta-ypwar xhlir Alixhlnye.*

It-want in present I see mammoth-absolutive through Alixhlnye

*I want Alixhlnye to see the blue-mammoth.*



*12   M3 want I C2 see elephant       "I want to see the elephant."  Kinda
*



*Paje-fhlqang p thothtqi fhapta-ypwar p-xhli.*

It want I see mammoth-absolutive I-through

*I want to see the blue-mammoth.*



*Thothtqi fhapta-ypwar xhlir fhlqang p-xhni.*

See mammoth-absolutive through want I-with

*I want to see the blue-mammoth.*



*Thothotqi-yjhwor fhapta-ypwar p-xhli.*

See-want mammoth-absolutive I-through

*I want to see the blue-mammoth.*



*Thothotqi-ykhwi fhapta-ypwar p-xhli.*

See-willing mammoth-absolutive I-through

*I am willing to see the blue-mammoth.*



*Thothtqi ujeni fhapta-ypwar p-xhli.*

See-willing mammoth-absolutive I-through

*I am willing to see the blue-mammoth.*



*Resultatives*

*13  M3 put cat I C2 in house        "I put the cat in the house."   Yes*



*Athwm-aloi tlhkhpent fhensya-ylkha p.*

Igloo-in place kitten-of I

*I put the kitten in the igloo.*



*Tlhkhpent fhensya-ylkha athwm-aloi p.*

Span igloo-in place kitten-of I

*I put the kitten in the igloo.*



*Tlhkhpent fhensya-ylkha p athwm-aloi.*

Put kitten-of I igloo-in

*I put the kitten in the igloo.*

Or:

*I, in the igloo, put the kitten.*



*Tlhkhpent fhensya-ylkha plejerng-xhyeu athwm-aloi p.*

Put kitten-of span-to.be igloo-in I

*I put the kitten to be in the igloo.*



*14   M3 pound metal Mary C1 flat     "Mary pounded the metal flat."  Yes*



*Fhei-ypwarn khloe-ypwar pirno-yxhyeu Alixhlnye-yan.*

Strike-perfective metal-absolutive flat-to.be Alixhlnye-ergative

*Alixhlnye struck the metal to be flat.*



*Depictives*

*15  M3 eat meat John C1 raw "John ate the meat raw."  No*



*Pwipwlam fhn-lkha khlretis pfhu Alixhlnye.*

Eat fish-of raw ingeminate Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnye ate the raw flying fishes.*



*Pwipwlam fhn khluretis-tya Alixhlnye.*

Eat fish raw-partitive.genitive Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnye began to eat the raw flying fishes.*



*Pwipwlam fhn-jhwa khlretis pfhu xhlir Alixhlnye.*

Eat fish-absolutive raw ingeminate through Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnye accidentally ate the raw flying fishes.*



*Pwipwlam fhn-lkha ker khlretis Alixhlnye.*

Eat fish-of to.wit raw Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnye ate the flying fishes that were raw.*



*Pwipwlam fhn-lkha khluretis-apnya Alixhlnye.*

Eat fish-of raw-who.may.be Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnye ate the flying fishes that might have been raw.*



*16   M3 eat meat John C1 nude        "John ate the meat nude."   Yes*



*Pwipwlam fhn-jhwa Alixhlnye-yan jqhekh.*

Eat fish-absolutive Alixhlnye-ergative scanty

*Scantilly clad Alixhlnye ate the flying fishes.*



*Pwipwlam fhn-jhwa Alixhlnye-yant pejor jqhekh.*

Eat fish-absolutive Alixhlnye-ergative while scanty

*Alixhlnye, being scantilly clad, ate the flying fishes.*



*Pwipwlam fhn-jhwa Alixhlnye-yan kus jqhekh.*

Eat fish-absolutive Alixhlnye-ergative who scanty

*Alixhlnye, who was scantilly clad, ate the flying fishes.*



*Pwipwlam fhn-jhwa Alixhlnye-yan joqhekh-apnya.*

Eat fish-absolutive Alixhlnye-ergative scanty-who.may.be

*Alixhlnye, who might have been scantilly clad, ate the flying fishes.*



*17  M2/Pst leave Mary S2/Dur eat John       "Mary left while John was
eating."  ??*



*Lrpor Alixhlnye pejor pwipwlam xhnpe Sonxxa.*

Leave Alixhlnye while eat being Jackalope

*Alixhlnye left whilst the Jackalope was eating.*



*18   M2/Pst leave Mary S2/Prf eat John       "Mary left after John had
eaten."  ??*



*Lrpor Alixhlnye pwipwlam qus qr xhr xhr Sonxxa.*

Leave Alixhlnye eat after in past past Jackalope

*Alixhlnye left, after the Jackalope had eaten.*



Ablative absolute:



*Lrpor Alixhlnye pwipwlam-uqa qr xhr xhr Sonxxa.*

Leave Alixhlnye eat-ablative.absolutie in past past Jackalope

*Alixhlnye left, after the Jackalope had eaten.*



*Lrpor Alixhlnye pwipwlam kejoqe qr xhr xhr Sonxxa.*

Leave Alixhlnye eat ablative.absolutie in past past Jackalope

*Alixhlnye left, after the Jackalpe had eaten.*



*19   M2/Pst leave Mary S2/Pro eat John       "Mary left before John ate."
 ??*



*Lrpor Alixhlnye pwipwlam jiss Sonxxa.*

Leave Alixhlnye eat before Jackalope

*Alixhlnye left, before the Jackalope ate.*



*20   M2/Pst eat John S2/Aor leave Mary       "John was eating when Mary
left."  ??*



*Pwipwlam-oqen Sonxxa keqoas lrpor Alixhlnye.*

Eat-progressive Jackalope when leave Alixhlnye

*The Jackalope was eating, when Alixhlnye left.*



*Restrictive or attributive predicates (R#):*

* 21  M3 see I R2 white cat           "I see a white cat."   No*



*Thothtqi fhensya khkhtim pfho p-xhli.*

See kitten white ingeminate I-through

*I see a white kitten.*



*22   M3 see I R2 big R2 black dog    "I see a big black dog."   No*



*Thothtqi fhensya khyo khkhtim pfho p-xhli.*

See kitten large white ingeminate I-through

*I see a large, white kitten.*



*23   M3 see I R2 break window        "I see the broken window."  No*



*Thothtqi khlutais-pwar xjus pfhu p-xhli.*

See window-absolutive broken ingeminate I-through

*I see the broken triangular-and-circular window.*



*Thothtqi khlutais-pwar xhnpe pfhu fhreqa-ylkha p-xhli.*

See window-absolutive being ingeminate break-of I-through

*I see the triangular-and-circular window that is broken.*



*24   M3 see I R3 break window boy    "I see the window-breaking boy."  
No*



*Thothtqi xhwofhwiyur-pwar fhrqa kae khlutais-lkha p-xhli.*

See lad-absolutive break ingeminate window-of I-through

*I see the lad who breaks triangular-and-circular windows.*



*Thothtqi xhwofhwiyur-pwar fhrqa kae yangur khlutais-lkha p-xhli.*

See lad-absolutive break ingeminate naturally window-of I-through

*I see the lad who naturally breaks triangular-and-circular windows.*



*Thothtqi xhwofhwiyur-pwar kus fhreqa-yanyas khlutais-lkha p-xhli.*

See lad-absolutive who break-habitually window-of I-through

*I see the lad who habitually breaks triangular-and-circular windows.*



*25  M3 see I R3-I break boy window  "I see the boy-broken window."  No*



*Thothtqi khlutais-pwar fhreq-yafham xhwfhwiyur kae p-xhli-yanwa.*

See window-absolutive break-mediopassive lad ingeminte I-through-focus

*I see the triangular-and-circular window that the lad broke.*

*I see the triangular-and-circular window broken by the lad.*



*26   M3 see I R3 in house cat        "I see the cat in the house."  No*



*Athwm-aloi thothtqi fhensya-ypwar p-xhli.*

Igloo-in see kitten-absolutive I-through

*In the igloo I see the kitten.*



*Thothtqi fhensya-ypwar athwm-aloi p-xhli.*

See kitten-absolutive igloo-in I-through

*I see the kitten in the igloo.*

* *

*Thothtqi fhensya-ypwar p-xhli athwm-aloi.*

See kitten-absolutive I-through igloo-in

*I see the kitten in the igloo.*

Or:

*I, in the igloo, see the kitten.*



*27   M3 see I R3-I in cat house      "I see the house the cat's in."   No
*



*Thothtqi athwem-pwar koaqoas fhensya p-xhli.*

See igloo-absolutive where kitten I-through

*I see the igloo where the kitten is.*



*Thothtqi athwem-pwar koaqoas koaqoas fhensya p-xhli.*

See igloo-absolutive where where kitten I-through

*I see the igloo wherever the kitten may be.*



*Thothtqi athwem-pwar koaqoas pljerng fhensya p-xhli.*

See igloo-absolutive where span kitten I-through

*I see the igloo where the kitten is located.*



*28  M2X this R4-T give boy woman book "This is the book the woman gave
the boy."  Mp*



*Tsena-fhsa tuinamt-afham xhwfhwiyur pae Ton kae xing pei-xing-ujhwu.*

Singular-book give-mediopassive lad to Mother ingeminate singular
this-singular-focus

*This is the hexagonal-book which his Mother gave to the lad.*



*Bivalent predicates are possessible while univalent ones must be marked
(+).*

* 29  M3 mother John Mary     "Mary is John's mother."  Yes*



*Ton-ing Alixhlnye xhneyemaike Qeretrta.*

Her.mother-singular Alixhlnye beloved Qeretrta

*Beloved Qeretrta is Alixhlnyes Mother.*



*Ton-ing Alixhlnye xhroe xhneyemaike Qeretrta.*

Her.mother-singular Alixhlnye of beloved Qeretrta

*Beloved Qeretrta is Alixhlnyes Mother.*



*Teiwa-Ton-ing Alixhlnye xhneyemaike Qeretrta.*

Her-Her.mother-singular Alixhlnye beloved Qeretrta

*Beloved Qeretrta is Alixhlnyes Mother.*

* *

*Teiwa-Ton-ing Alixhlnye xhroe xhneyemaike Qeretrta.*

Her-Her.mother-singular Alixhlnye of beloved Qeretrta

*Beloved Qeretrta is Alixhlnyes Mother.*



*30   M2/  mother Mary                "Mary is someone's mother."   Yes*



*Tekhya-Ton-ing xhneyemaike Qeretrta.*

Someones-Mother-singular beloved Qeretrta

*Beloved Qeretrta is someones Mother.*



*31   M2 mother John          "John has a mother."  Yes*



*Ton-ing xhmir Alixhlnye.*

Mother-singular to Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnye has a Mother.*



*Xhmir Alixhlnye Ton-ing.*

To Alixhlnye Mother-singular

*Alixhlnye has a Mother.*



*Tsna-Tnt p-qi.*

Singular-Mother I-in

*I have a Mother.*



*32   R2 mother John          "John's mother"  Yes*



*Tsena koe Ton Alixhlnye*

Singular her Mother Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnyes Mother.*



*Tsena koe Ton Alixhliny-yejikh*

Singular her Mother Alixhlnye-of

*Alixhlnyes Mother.*



*33  M3 dog+ Tom Fido                "Fido is Tom's dog."  Yes*



*Xhnalwa-fhensya Alixhlnye Twtsa.*

Her-kitten Alixhlnye Struggles

*Struggles is Alixhlnyes kitten.*



*Xhnalwa-fhensya Alixhlnye xhroe Twtsa.*

Her-kitten Alixhlnye of Struggles

*Struggles is Alixhlnyes kitten.*



*34   M2/  dog+ Fido          "Fido is someone's dog."   Yes*



*Tekhya-fhensya qr p Twtsa.*

Someones-kitten in present Struggles

*Struggles is someones kitten.*



*35   M2 dog+ Tom             "Tom has a dog."   Yes*



*Fhensya xhmir Alixhlnye.*

Kitten to Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnye has a kitten.*



*Xhmir Alixhlnye fhensya.*

To Alixhlnye kitten

*Alixhlnye has a kitten.*



*Fhensya p-qi.*

Kitten I-in

*I have a kitten.*



*36   R2 dog+ Tom             "Tom's dog"   Yes*



*Xhnalwa-fhensya Alixhlnye*

Her-kitten Alixhlnye

*Alixhlnyes kitten*



*Xhnalwa-fhensya Alixhlnye xhroe*

Her-kitten Alixhlnye-of

*Alixhlnyes kitten*



*37  R2 mother R2 young boy  "the young boy's mother"  Yes*



*Ton-ing xhwfhwiyur pxa kae*

Mother-singular lad young ingeminate

*The young lads Mother*



*Ton-ing xhwfhwiyur xhroe pxa kae*

Mother-singular lad of young ingeminate

*The young lads Mother*



*38   R2 young R2 mother boy  "the boy's young mother"  Yes*



*Ton-ing pxa xhwofhwiyr-ejikh*

Her.mother-singular young lad-of

*The lads young Mother *



*Teiwa-Ton-ing pxa xhwofhwiyr-ejikh*

Her-her.mother-singular young lad-of

*The lads young Mother *



*39  R2 big R2 black R2 dog+ Tom     "Tom's big black dog" (I think)  Yes*



*Xhnalwa-fhensya khyo khkhtim Alixhliny-yejikh*

Her-kitten large white Alixhlnye-of

*Alixhlnyes large, white kitten*



*Here are a couple examples using the coreferential:*

* 40  M3Pst see John Mary C1/Pro eat        "Mary saw John before she ate."
 Yes*



*Thothtqi Sonxxa xhlir Alixhlnye pwipwlam jis.*

See Jackalope through Alixhlnye eat before

*Alixhlnye saw the Jackalope before eating.*



*Thothtqi Sonxxa xhlir Alixhlnye pwipwlam jis kexhing.*

See Jackalope through Alixhlnye see before she

*Alixhlnye saw the Jackalope before she ate.*



*41   M3/Pst see Mary John C1/Pro eat        "Mary saw John before he
ate."  No*



*Thothtqi Sonxxa xhlir Alixhlnye pwipwlam jis keku-xing.*

See Jackalope through Alixhlnye eat before other-singular

*Alixhlnye saw the Jackalope before the other ate.*



*42  M2 cat white            "The white one is a cat."  Yes*



*Fhensya qr p khkhtim.*

Kitten in present white

*The white one is a kitten.*



*Relative Clauses*

* 43  R2 boy S3-Prf find R2 dog+ Rel you  Possibly*

* "the boy such that you found his dog"*

* "the boy whose dog you found"*



*Xhwofhwiyur-apnya twu xhnalwa-fhensya t-xhli*

Boy-who find his-kitten you-through

*The lad whose kitten you found by chance*



*44  R2 house S3/-Prf see you cat C2 in Rel  No*

* "the house such that you saw the cat in it"*

* "the house in which you saw the cat"*



*thwem koaqoas thothtqi fhensya-ypwar t-xhli-xing*

Igloo where see kitten-absolutive I-through-singular

*the igloo wherein you saw the kitten*



*45  cat 5 group 3   "3 groups of 5 cats"  No*



*Sji ty fhsya khw-ytya*

Group three kitten five-partitive.genitive

*three groups of five kittens*



*46   shoe pair 9     "9 pairs of shoes"  No*



*Xr lyiikh-tlhetor tsujhi-ytya*

Pair thrice-three wooden.shoe-partitive.genitive

*thrice three pairs of wooden-shoon*