Here's the latest update, with thanks to the previous commenters. Jan29 is one of theose conlangs where all verbs are univalent: most words are pairs of noun or pronoun plus verb or case. The verbs come in different classes according to the role of the arguments they're paired with. There are 5 classes. What I'm trying to decide now before I go too far is what to call each class and what single-letter abbreviation to use in the vocabulary (after V for verb). So, more comments are welcome! Some examples: • VS - verbs that combine with the subject: large, fall, run xaufatini liporce. xaufa-tin-i li-porc-e dog-run-Aor Rel-large-Dur "The large dog ran." • VL - verbs that combine with the locatee: inside ñôkulme fèstalo. ñôko-lm-e fèsta-lo cat-in-Dur house-Loc "The cat is in the house." I tried combining these with the location noun first, but locatee actually works better. • VP - verbs that combine with the patient: throw, break pecnowari jûmen tas teknêkòpti. pecno-war-i jûme-n ta-s teknê-kòpt-i rock-throw-Aor boy-Agt Sub-Rsl window-break-Aor "The boy threw the rock, breaking the window." • VE - verbs that combine with the experiencer: see, think feniki jûmek. fè-nik-i jûme-k 1S-see-Aor boy-Img "I saw the boy." • VT - verbs that combine with the theme: give, say saren nami jûfise mocaxlasti. sare-n na-mi jûfi-se mo-caxla-st-i man-Agt Rfx-Abl girl-All IndS-book-give-Aor "The man gave the girl a book." Mêrin foqoni tafri sòprasolpi. Mêri-n fè-qon-i ta-fr-i sòpra-solp-i Mary-Agt 1S-hear-Aor Sub-say-Aor picture-fall-Aor "Mary told me that the picture fell." Rel- relative pronoun Rfx- refers to agent Sub- begins subordinate clause -Abl source -Agt agent -All destination -Aor aoristic aspect -Dur durative aspect -Img what's perceived -Loc location -Rsl result c = [S] x = [X] q = [q] ñ = [J] è = [E] ò = [O] circumflex = long vowel However, the syntax doesn't require any given word to be in the clause. Both rock-throw-Aor and boy-Agt are complete sentences by themselves.