Torsten -- I'm not sure I understand the question correctly (e.g. are you encoding a particular questionnaire, or a set of questionnaires, or a system for any questionnaire?). But FWIW my first instinct is that Peter's customization suggestion is along the right track. The twist will be coming up with the right level of generalization. * A new element for each question (as Peter implied, although he used the same ident= twice, I presume that's a typo) * A new element for each type of question, e.g. <true-false>, <true-false-na>, <mult_choice>, <mult_choice_with_other> * A single element <question> that lets you control the type of response with a responseType=. Current ODD processing doesn't make it easy (if even possible) to validate the response against the specified responseType=, but don't let that stop you :-) Issues like that.