So I woke up before dawn this morning thinking about relative clauses (as one does), and I finally found the Resumptive Pronoun in aUI. On the way, though, I found a couple of other interesting relative pronoun things. (Also, apologies for pre-sunrise typoes ...) 1: Resumptive Pronouns in aUI. The basic relative pronouns in aUI appear to be xu (who) and xE (which). aUI word order is almost always SOV. So this is an example that I found: u, fu iOpAv xu, tev. person I saw who come "The man, I saw whom, comes" The "Resumptive" Pronoun (if one can call it such in aUI) is xQ. It can be used to start a relative clause in which we find a regularly relative pronoun. This is what I found: pI u, xQ fu viOpAv xu at bu, cpAv fum jytvu. the person that I showed who to you was my brother "The man, whom I showed you, was my brother." Other forms of the relative pronoun that I found were xnu "persons who" and xnE "things which." So, I'm guessing this is a possible sentence: *pIn u, xQ fu viOpAv xnu at bu, cpAv pIn jytvu. the.pl person that I showed who.pl to you was the.pl brother "The men, whom I showed you, were brothers." Given aUI's word forming abilities, I would guess we would find such relative pronouns as: *xo -- animal which, *xno -- animals which *xuv -- man who, *xnuv -- men who *xuL -- woman who, *xnuL -- women who My source is the aUI book by Weilgart. 2: Láadan Relative Phrases Láadan does not have a Relative Pronoun, but rather adds the suffix -háa to the end of a noun phrase. (Note that -háa changes to -sháa after the locative suffix -ha). These examples come from Amberwind's Láadan lessons, which I would consider authoritative since Elgin answered some of his questions while he worked upon them. "Wa" at the end of these sentences is an evidential word which I won't gloss. Also, I'm not going to worry about the speech active thingie "bíi" for these purposes. Bíi an behid lalom withe-háa-th wa. declare know he sing woman-who-acc "He knows a woman who sings." Bíi láad ehá meh-aba mahina-háa-th wa. declare perceive scientist pl-fragrant flower-who-acc "The scientist perceives the flowers that are fragrant." Báa eril láad ne hal wo-do wo-withe-háa-th? Q past perceive you work adj-strong adj-woman-who-acc "Did you perceive the strong woman who worked?" Bíi di le hal withe-háa-nal wa. declare speak I work woman-who-like "I speak like (in the manner of) the woman who works." Bíi di le hal withe-háa-da wa. declare speak I work woman-who-for "I speak for (on behalf of) the woman who works." Bíi di le hal withe-háa-di wa. declare speak I work woman-who-to "I speak to the woman who works." Bíi le hal withe-háa wa. declare I work woman-who "I am the woman who works." Bíi di hal withe-háa wa. declare speak work woman-who "The woman who works speaks." The following sentence can be ambiguous: Bíi íthi sháad with bo-di-háa wa declare tall go woman mountain-to-who "The woman who went to the mountain is tall" "The mountain the woman went to is tall" One can be clear by using -hóo, the focus suffix Bíi íthi eril sháad withe-hóo bo-di-háa wa. declare tall past go woman-focus mountain-to-who "The woman who went to the mountain is tall." Bíi íthi eril sháad with bo-hóo-di-háa wa. declare tall past go woman mountain-focus-to-who "The mountain that the woman went to is tall." 3: Relative Clauses in Latin Finally, I would like to point out that even if one's language doesn't have something semi-exotic, such as a resumptive pronoun or a wacky suffix, it doesn't mean that it can't do its own unique thing. The relative pronoun in Latin, for instance, looks rather well-behaved, but it certainly does things that we don't find in English or in other languages. These are examples from Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar. These will be direct quotations: (quote) c: A relative clause in Latin often takes the place of some other construction in English, -- particularly of a participle, an appositive, or a noun of agency: -- Leges quae nunc sunt "The existing laws" e: The relative with an abstract noun may be used in a parenthetical clause to characterize a person, like the English 'such': -- Quae vestra prudentia est "Such is your wisdom" f: A relative pronoun (or adverb) often stands at the beginning of an independent sentence or clause, serving to connect it with the sentence or clause that precedes: -- Caesar statuit exspectandam classem; quae ubi convenit ... "Caesar decided that he must wait for the fleet; and when this had come together ..." g: A relative adverb is regularly used in referring to an antecedent in the Locative case; so, often, to express any relation of place instead of the formal relative pronoun: -- Mortuus Cumis quo se contulerat ... "Having died at Cumae, whither he had retired ... " (unquote) Okay, the sun is peaking over the horizon now. That's it for now!