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Gary Shannon wrote:
<quote>
(A) The boy that HE broke the window ran away. SUBJ
(B) The boy that I saw HIM ran away. D.O.
(C) The boy that I gave the book to HIM was happy. IND OBJ
(D) The boy that HIS mother spoke to us left already. GEN.? </quote>

I've already given Kash exs. for these or similar-- Bah.Indonesia works much the same way (I have to change some things because of forgotten vocab :-(  or to show the verb forms more clearly)

(A) anak yang memecah jendela lari kesana
    child  REL meN-pecah ............. 
                       ACT-pecah   (the vb is active because Subj. is same)
The child who broke the window ran over there.

(B) anak yang kulihat (itu) lari kesana
      ......   .....    ku-lihat (DEF).....    
(ku-lihat is a passive form, because subj. is DO
        of the main  clause; and IIRC the _itu_ is needed to show that the subject clause/topic is closed))
(lit.) child that was seen by me.....

Passive form of the verb shows up more clearly with a 3d pers. verb in:
anak yang dilihatnya itu lari kesana
....        ....   di-lihat-nya.....child that he saw.... (lit. was seen by him)
                 PASS-see-3s
The child that he saw ran over there.

(C) anak yang diberi buku oleh ibunya (itu) senang
      .....     .........di-beri .......BY    ibu-3sposs   
The child who was given a gook by his mother was happy (not sure whether _itu_ fits in here or not....)

(C-1) here's a variation:
The book that his mother gave him was new.
buku yang diberikan kepadanya oleh ibunya (itu)  baru
....    ......    di-beri-kan kepada-nya
....    ...     PASS-give-FOC  to-3s
(-kan indicates focus on the DO).
The book that his mother gave him was new. ~...that was given to him by his mother....

(D) anak yang ibunya sudah bercakap dengan kami (itu?) sudah pergi
    ....        ....    mother-Poss  PERF/PAST ber-cakap  
(lit.) child REL his mother spoke/has spoken  with us (DEF) PERF go
The child whose mother spoke with us has gone.  (No passives here!!, lit. the child which his mother spoke ...etc.)

Hope this is clear.Subject to correction by any native speaker!!!!






On Thursday, February 13, 2014 3:00 AM, Gary Shannon <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
 
I'm considering whether or not Pandári will have resumptive pronouns
in relative clauses.

My first set of rules for relative clauses only allowed for the
modified noun to be the subject of the clause. When I tried to fix
that, I couldn't decide which way to go.

With resumptive pronouns:

The boy that HE broke the window ran away. SUBJ
The boy that I saw HIM ran away. D.O.
The boy that I gave the book to HIM was happy. IND OBJ
The boy that HIS mother spoke to us left already. GEN.?

Plus the possibility of expanding upon the resumptive pronoun:

The boy that HE AND HIS FRIENDS broke the window ran away.
The boy that I saw HIM AND HIS FRIENDS all ran away.
The boy that I gave the candy to HIM AND HIS FRIENDS were happy. (or was happy?)
The boy that HIS AND HIS FRIEND'S mothers spoke to us left already.
(awkward. I don't think I like it.)

Without resumptive pronouns, with gap:

I the boy that () broke the window ran away.
The boy that I saw () ran away.
The boy that I gave the book to () was happy.
The boy whose mother (she) spoke to us left already.

But this will not allow elaboration of the resumptive pronoun.

One compromise is to use a relative pronoun that marks for role of the
dropped resumptive:

The boy THAT-HE broke the window ran away.
The boy THAT-HIM I saw ran away.
The boy TO-WHOM I gave the book was happy.
The boy THAT-HIS mother spoke to us left already.

Another compromise is to make the use of the resumptive pronoun
optional so that it can be left out if the case-marked relative
pronoun is used, or included and elaborated upon if so desired.

What are the other approaches to relative clauses?

(I once heard the character on the Fibber McGee and Molly radio show
say "The boy that he works at the bench next to me's tool box...". Now
there's a handy construction!)

--gary