"Nilvalent". Like it. Sent from my iPhone On 12 Jun 2014, at 01:14, J P <[log in to unmask]> wrote: >> Khangaþyagon has a passive copula, which means "there is". > > A thing that this reminds me of: as you may be aware, Finnish has a small number of nilvalent verbs, e.g. > _sataa_ | rain-3PS | "It is raining" > _tuulee_ | wind-3PS | "The wind is blowing" > (the 3PS markers are semantically null, much as in in English _It is raining_) > > And straightforwardly enuff, some intransitive verbs can be used in the "passive person" to yield similar nilvalent-ish expressions: > > _pihalla tanssitaan_ | yard-ADESS dance-PASS.PRES | "there is dancing in the yard"; i.e. "there are people dancing in the yard" > _talvella kaadutaan usein_ | winter- fall-PASS.PRES often | -- "falling often happens in winter" i.e. "in wintertime, [unspecified entities] will be often falling down" > > A prepositional phrase is still necessary here, though. > > I'm also reminded of some verbs of mental states (some of them even transitive) that allow superficially nilvalent expressions. These kind of statements normally imply an 1st person experiencer: > _kyrpii_ | be_pissed_off_by-3PS | "there is being-pissed-off", usually i.e.: "I am pissed off" > _nukuttaa_ | feel_sleepy-3PS | "there is feeling-sleepy", usually i.e.: "I am sleepy" > > The same holds even when an object is used, though. > _työ kyrpii_ | work be_pissed_off_by-3PS | "work pisses one off", usually i.e.: "I'm pissed off by work" > > Contextually other persons could be implied too. > > _j.