Print

Print


Matthew Barnett sent:

> I thought this might be of interest:

> English explodes in India - and it's not just Hinglish

>  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-28054460

 

Yes, I saw that, and almost sent it to Risto Kupsala -- since we were talking about vocabulary from the subcontinent. I had early noted that English words were widespread around India. Also words of general European origin. Flow was both ways of course, with things like "shampoo" now found in Russian.

 

Decades back I got a copy of Hobson-Jobson by Sir Henry Yule, and dug out words that seemed Bahasan candidates.

It is now on line!     http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/hobsonjobson/

 

Material for my vocabulary selection, does not however center on the Hobson-Jobson era, but on the subsequent rush into all the languages of the subcontinent of words from English and other WENSA languages, the current commercial vocabulary, law, sport, movies, music and the media, the technology of the Internet, and above all -- the ISV.

 

The origin of these words often goes back to French, Portuguese, Latin, Greek, Italian, etc. Hundreds of Greco-Latin roots will be very familiar to millions there. The list below will give some idea.

 

All the words here were found by me in the appropriate South Asian alphabet, but transcribed here. They are regular localized terms, not some sort of “Hinglish.”  Various languages are shown for variety, most words exist in Hindi or Bengali -- languages spoken by more people than German or French. A very large percentage will also be found (in the Latin alphabet) in Malay /Indonesian /Javanese – also in the languages of Central Asia, often in Cyrillic or forms of the Arabic alphabet.

 

The below is far less than 1% of the words of this sort that I recorded in Project Bahasan, but they will give you an idea.

 

aardvark [ Hindi=ārḍavarka;

album [ Urdu=album;

ambulance [ Urdu=ambulans;

apple [ Divehi=āfalu;

apple [ Tamil=āppiḷ;

apron [ Urdu=epron;

archives [ Hindi=ārkā'iva;

bacteria [ Hindi=baikṭīriyā;

balneology [ Hindi=bālani'ōlŏjī;

banjo [ Hindi=bain̄jō;

baritone [ Bengali=byāriṭana;

baritone [ Hindi=bairiṭōna;

barley [ Sinhala=bārli;

beer [ Gujarati=bīyar;

beige [ Hindi=bēja;

bicycle [ Sinhala=bayisikalayen;

bicycle [ Urdu=baisikel;

blanket [ Kannada=blyāṅkeṭ;

boot [ Sindhi=būṭu;

boycott [ Bengali=baẏakaṭa;

boycott [ Kannada=bōykātt;

bread [ Divehi=pān;

bread [ Sinhala=pān;

broadcast [ Bengali=braḍakāsṭa;

broadcast [ Gujarati=brōḍakāsṭa;

brochure [ Gujarati=brōśara;

brokerage [ Bengali=brōkārēja;

bronchial [ Bengali=braṅkiẏāla;

bulldozer [ Hindi=bulaḍōzara;

bulletin [ Hindi=bulēṭina;

bundle [ Pashto=banḍal;

bureaucrat [ Urdu=byurocrat;

business [ Kashmiri=bizines;

butter [ Sinhala=baṭar;

cactus [ Telugu=kākṭas;

candle [Kannada=kyāṇḍal;

carpenter [ Kannada=kārpeṇṭar;

cassette [ Hindi=kaisēṭa;

catharsis [ Kannada=kyātharsis;

cathode [ [ Hindi=kaithōḍa;

caucus [ Hindi=kōkasa;

cauldron [ Telugu=kālḍrannu;

ceiling [ Punjabi=sīliga;

cellophane [ Hindi=silōfana;

cellphone [ Punjabi=saila phōna;

cellphone [ Tamil=celpōṉ;

ceramic [ Gujarati=sirāmika;

ceramic [ Nepali=sirēmika;

chance{n [ Balochi=chāns;

cheese [ Divehi=čīżu;

cherry [ Hindi=čerī;

design [ Hindi=ḍizāina;

desk [ Nepali=ḍēska;

desktop [ Hindi=ḍēskaṭŏpa;

detective [ Gujarati=ḍiṭēkṭīva;

driver [ Balochi=ḍrewar;

embryology [ Uzbek=embriologiya;

enamel [ Nepali=ināmēlamā;

enamel [ Telugu=enāmel;

engine [ Assamese=injin;

engineer [ Kashmiri=injīniyar /yinjīnar;

factory [ Pashtu=fābrɪká;

farm [ Hindi=phārma;

farm [ Kannada=phārm;

fashion [ Pashtu=fešán;

feudal [ Kannada=phyūḍal;

feudalism [ Telugu=phyūḍalijaṁ;

film [ Urdu=film;

fluoroquinolone [ Hindi=flōrōkvinōlōna;

football [ Burushaski=fuṭbal;

gastritis [ Hindi=gaisṭrāīṭisa;

gauze [ Bengali=gaja;

generator [ Bengali=jēnārēṭara;

generator [ Hindi=janarēṭara;

generator [ Pashtu=ǰenreṭár;

genocide [ Telugu=jenōsaiḍ;

genome [ Bengali=jinōma;

genome [ Hindi=jīnōma;

geodesic [ Hindi=jiyōḍēsika;

geodesic [ Telugu=jiyōḍisk;

geophysics [ Kannada=jiyōphisiks;

gigabyte [ Bengali=gigābā'iṭa;

gigabyte [ Hindi=gīgābā'iṭa;

glass [ Balochi=gilās;

grammar [ Gujarati=grāmara;

graphics [ Telugu=grāphiks;

gymnastics [ Hindi=jimnāsṭika;

gyroscope [ Gujarati=girōskōpa;

helicopter [ Gujarati=hēlikōpṭara;

heliocentric [ Gujarati=hēlīyōsēnṭrīka;

helmet [ Bengali=hēlamēṭa;

helmet [ Gujarati=hēlmēṭa;

herbicide [ Gujarati=harbisā'iḍa;

herbicide [ Hindi=harbisā'iḍa;

histological [ Gujarati=hisṭōlōjikala;

hockey [ Hindi=hākī;

homonym [ Gujarati=hōmōnīma;

homonym [ Telugu=hōmōniṁ;

horizontal [ Gujarati=hōrijhōnṭala;

hormone [ Tamil=hārmōṉ;

hospital [ Urdu=hospitel;

image [ Kannada=imēj;

image [ Punjabi=īmēza;

jacket [ Nepali=jyākēṭa;

jail [ Urdu=jayl;

jury [ Bengali=juri /jurira;

jury [ Hindi=jūrī;

jury [ Telugu=jyūrī;

kaleidoscope [ Hindi=kailiḍōskōpa;

kayak [ Bengali=kāẏāka;

kinetic [ Hindi=kā'inēṭika;

lecturer [ Kashmiri=lekčarar;

lens [ Bengali=lēnsa;

lens [ Hindi=lēnsa;

leprechaun [ Hindi=lēprēcauṁ;

lesbian [ Hindi=lēsbiyana;

lexeme [ Telugu=lēkjīṁ;

lithography [ Kannada=lithōgraphiyinda;

litmus  [ Hindi=liṭamasa;

loan [ Bengali=lōna;

loan [ Gujarati=lōna;

loan [ Telugu=lōn;

local [ Bengali=lōkāla;

local [ Gujarati=lōkala;

locker [ Hindi=lākara;

locker [ Marathi=lŏkara;

locomotive [ Gujarati=lōkōmōṭiva;

locomotive [ Hindi=lōkōmōṭiva;

logarithm [ Bengali=lagāridama;

logarithm [ Telugu=lāgarithaṁ;

logbook [ Kannada=lāgbuk;

logbook [ Telugu=lāṅgbuk;

logic [ Bengali=lajika;

logic [ Kannada=lājik

lollipop [ Bengali=lālipāpa;

lottery [ Pashtu=lātrә́y;

machine [ Hindi=maśīna;

machine [ Rohingya=micín;

macroeconomics [ Hindi=maikrō'ikŏnŏmiksa;

macroeconomics [ Telugu=mākrō'ekanāmiks;

magistrate [ Bengali=myājisṭrēṭa;

magistrate [ Telegu=mējisṭrēṭ;

magma [ Bengali=myāgamā;

magma [ Hindi=mēgmā;

magnetism [ Gujarati=mēgnēṭijhama;

magnetism [ Telugu=māgneṭijaṁ;

mammal [ Gujarati=mēmala;

manager [ Kashmiri=manejar;

maneuver [ Gujarati=manyuvara;

manicure [ Hindi=mainīkyōra;

manuscript [ Telugu=mānyuskripṭ;

map [ Bengali=myāpa;

map [ Rohingya=mep;

map [ Telugu=myāp;

marble [ Tamil=mārpiḷ;

marketing [ Bengali=mārkēṭiṁ;

marketing [ Telugu=mārkeṭiṅg;

marketing [ Urdu=marketing;

mascara [ Hindi=maskārā;

mask [ Gujarati=māsaka;

mask [ Hindi=māska;

masquerade [ Gujarati=māskarēḍa;

massage [ Marathi=masāja;

microblog [ Hindi=māikrōblŏga;

microblog [ Telugu=maikrōblāg;

mirror [ Bengali=mirara;

mirror [ Marathi=mirara;

motorcycle [ Pashto=moṭarsāykél;

notebook [ Nepali=notbuk;

notice [ Urdu=notis;

nucleosynthesis [ Telugu=nyūkliyōsinthasis;

number [ Nepali=nambara;

nurse [ Kashmiri=nər’s;

nurse [ Pashtu=ners;

nylon [ Pashtu=naylún;

nylon [ Rohingya=nailun;

oboe [ Gujarati=ōbō;

oboe [ Hindi=ōbā'u;

office [ Urdu=ofis;

optometry [ Hindi=ōpṭāmīṭara /ŏpṭōmaiṭrī;

pentathlon  [ Hindi=pēṇṭāthalāna;

plastic [ Urdu=plastik;

plate [ Nepali=plet;

polychrome [ Hindi=pōlīkrōma;

polycyclic [ Kannada=pālisaiklik;

polyester [ Hindi=pŏli'ēsṭara;

polygon [ Telugu=pōligān;

polysaccharide [ Kannada=pālisyākaraiḍ;

polytechnic [ Gujarati=pōliṭēkanika;

propeller [ Hindi=prōpēlara;

psychology [ Gujarati=sāyakōlŏjī;

pump [ Hindi=pampa;

refrigeration [ Hindi=rēphrizirēśana;

relativity [ Hindi=rilēṭiviṭī;

risk [ Marathi=riska;

risk [ Telugu=risk;

robot [ Hindi=rōbōta;

robot [ Kannada=rōbōt;

robot [ Marathi=rōbō;

rocket [ Hindi=rākēṭa;

route [ Hindi=rūṭa;

ruby [ Hindi=rūbī;

ruby [ Rohingya=rubi;

salad [ Hindi=salāda;

school [ Khasi=skul;

science [ Kannada=sains;

screen [ Hindi=skrīna;

script [ Tamil=skiripṭ;

script [ Telegu=skripṭu;

scroll [ Gujarati=skrōla;

scroll [ Hindi=skrŏla;

scuba [ Bengali=skubā;

secretary [ Kannada=sekreṭari;

secretary [ Pashtu=sekarṭár;

shock [ Marathi=śŏka;

shoes [ Sinhala=sapattū;

shrapnel [ Bengali=srāpnēl;

silk [ Sinhala=silk;

skype [ Hindi=skā'ipē;

snow [ Divehi=snō;

soybean [ Hindi=sōyābīna;

station [ Hindi=sṭeśan;

statistical [ Marathi=sṭĕṭisṭikala;

stethoscope [ Hindi=sṭēthōskōpa;

stratum [Hindi=sṭrēṭama;

submarine [ Bengali=sābamērina;

table [ Bengali=ṭebil;

technology [ Hindi=ṭaiknōlŏjī;

tectonic [ Bengali=tēkaṭanika;

telescope [ Hindi=ṭēlīskōpa

tobacco [ Hindi=taṃbākū;

tray [ Assamese=trei;

tulip [ Hindi=ṭyūlipa;

tutor [ Urdu=tutor;

ultrasonic [ Hindi=alṭrāsōnika;

universal [ Telugu=yūnivarsal;

video [ Urdu=vidiyo;

walrus [ Urdu=vālras;

website [ Urdu=websayt;

wonderland [ Bengali=ōẏānḍāralyānḍa;

xeon [ Kannada=eksiyān;

zip [ Urdu=zip;

zipper [ Bengali=jipāra;

zone [ Hindi=zōna;

zoom [ Hindi=zūma;

zygote [ Gujarati=jhāyagōṭa;

zygote [ Telugu=jaigōṭ;

 

Stuff like this can provide many in Asia with what I call “memory hooks” –things that can facilitate vocabulary learning in a well-designed IAL.  

 

The above does not show the hundreds of common words that the languages of the subcontinent share with European languages due to common Indo-European origins. Nor does it show shared borrowings from Arabic, etc.

 

Remember that vocabulary acquisition is the biggest learning obstacle in gaining control over a new language. That is one reason I see some worldlangs as better designed than others.

 

Best regards,

 

Leo

 

Leo John Moser

 

-----Original Message-----

From: International Auxiliary Languages [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Matthew Barnett

Sent: Tuesday, July 01, 2014 7:17 AM

To: [log in to unmask]

Subject: English in India

 

I thought this might be of interest:

 

English explodes in India - and it's not just Hinglish

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-28054460

 

[ remainder deleted ] .  .  .  .