Christophe Grandsire-Koevoets, On 13/07/2015 15:01: >> g. In no language can an affirmative be turned into a negative by changing >> the intonation contour (Horn 1989). >> > Ja ja... In Dutch, the sequence "ja ja": "yes yes" can have an affirmative > or negative meaning purely depending on the intonation contour used. Plenty > of other languages feature similar phrases. And if you want a more > "traditional" type of example, I believe that some language of Africa > (Igbo?) can mark negation purely through the change of the tone of the verb > (it's a tonal language in any case). I think what is meant is analogous to yes-no question-formation in many lgs. The Dutch case is one idiom, not a regular process. The Igbo case as you describe it sounds like inflection with tone; tone is not intonation. >> l. In every language in which there is a person and number inflection, >> there is also a tense, aspect, and mood inflection (Bybee 1985; 267). >> >> > Here, I can answer more authoritatively: the Shizunai dialect of Ainu > definitely breaks that one: it has person and number inflection, and can > (weakly) be argued to have aspect and mood inflection (although most, even > arguably all, of it is through auxiliary constructions), but it definitely > lacks any form of tense as a grammatical category. I think "a tense, aspect and mood inflection" means "an inflection for tense, aspect or mood (TAM)". > There's a very good reason why many of us are wary of any UG claim. Those were claims about universals, not necessarily claims of UG. UG is what is a genetic characteristic of the species. To me, Statements A--F look to arise necessarily from the fundamental architecture of language, while Statements G--Y look to be statistical tendencies, where any absence of exceptions is an accident of insufficiency of number of languages (absolutely or in samples). I haven't read Newmeyer's book, so don't know what he says about them. --And.