On 14 Jan 2016 21:47, "James Constable" <[log in to unmask]> wrote: > > On Fri, 15 Jan 2016 at 05:56 Jeffrey Brown <[log in to unmask]> wrote: > > I figured someone else would have said this. In _The Hobbit_, it says > > clearly that East is "up": > > > > "On the Map the compass points are marked in runes, with East at the > > top, as usual in dwarf-maps, and so read clockwise: E(ast), S(outh), > > W(est), N(orth)." > > Quenya shows the same correspondence in its direction words: > * hyarya "left" : Hyarmen (South) > * forya "right" : Formen (North) > > The logic being that the Elves named the directions as they were to a > person facing Valinor, the Blessed Realm in the West. Livagian is similar, but the reason is that things naturally tend to fall, so if the sun is falling then East is up, South is 'etymologically' left (of sun, but right on a map, whose orientation is determined not by the perspective of the sun, which would put east at the bottom and South on the left, but by putting up at the top and down at the bottom, and hence South on the right) and so on. For the northern hemisphere as a whole, there's a case for north being up, since things are colder higher up a mountain and polewards in the hemisphere. --And.