This is a topic that I realize may cause a good deal of confusion, so
to be very clear up front: I in no way mean to imply that programming
languages are the same kind of thing as human languages, nor am I
currently concerned with the construction of a system that could serve
in both capacities.
Programming language =/= Human language

Now that that's out of the way....

There's a video from a few years back ("Using Python to Code by
Voice": by a programmer who could
not type anymore due to RSI about hacking voice recognition software
to replace the keyboard as an input method for editing source code and
doing various other programming & system administration tasks.

That's cool, but it basically just comes down to coming up with
efficient voice commands to replace keystrokes, without actually
changing anything about the thing that you're editing to optimize for
editing by voice. If you aren't editing something on a screen, but
composing or reciting a purely oral program, typical programming
languages aren't really optimized for that, regardless of whether you
have pithy names for the punctuation. And of course for most
real-world usage, that doesn't matter- there are very few
circumstances where you need to dictate large chunks of code to
another person without feedback.

But, I've started working on a fictional setting (which I started
blogging about here:
in which that is a serious concern- magic is modelled on computer
science, and it is not uncommon to have to recite the "spells".

Unlike many magic systems involving spoken spells, however, in this
case the language itself is not "built-in"; i.e., there is no
privileged "language of magic". Magic does what the magician tells it
to do in whatever language the magician prefers to use and
understands, but the level of detail required means that magicians
generally prefer to use highly formal languages that are more like
computer programming languages than they are like normal human
languages. That means that human magicians are free to design magical
languages that are convenient for their use.

So, with all that background, I'm now wondering what a programming
language would look like that is optimized to take the best advantage
of the human language faculty in order to make it easier to memorize
and dictate code.

I'd like to know what thoughts the other programmers on the list have
on the subject (and anybody else who cares to comment, really, though
I'd expect other programmers to be the most interested), but here's
what I've got so far:

The major problem that I see needing to be solved is parenthesization;
one can't be expected to properly keep track of indentation levels in
speech, and explicit brackets around everything can get really hard to
keep track of even when you can look at what you're doing on a screen
(which is why we have special editors that keep track of
bracket-matching for us!) Ideally, one would want a language that did
not require explicit parenthesization anywhere, and in which other
"syntactic noise" is also minimized, so that every token of the
language carries as much semantic weight as possible, to make them
easier to memorize. This leads me to think that a concatenative,
combinator-based language (like FORTH, or the non-programming-language
conlang Fith) would be the best base, on top of which "idiomatic"
flourishes could be added.