On Sun, 29 May 2016 15:30:55 +0100 R A Brown <[log in to unmask]> wrote: > The conservative hieroglyphic writing will not give us much > clue about changes - especially a vowels are simply not > indicated. Possibly there are hints in hieratic and > demotic and the interesting _group system_ that Alex talks > about above may give clues - I don't know. But we can be > certain that Narmer would no more have understood Coptic > than King Alfred would understand modern contemporary > English - and the time between Narmer and Cleopatra is far > greater than that between King Alfred and today. I believe that Cleopatra would have a hard time with modern church Coptic, which is pronounced as if it were Greek! As an example of Egyptian reconstruction: Rusat (Old Kingdon) > Yusat (Middle Kingdom) > Usah (late New Kingom) > Ęsi (Alexandrian Coptic) The Egyptologists say Aset and that's Isis to the rest of us! I hope this winds up on the list: my last attempt went to Ray: I'll swear this email thing has a mind of its own.