This seems like an important study for us at Auxlang to look at:

I've marked some in red below.

Regards,           LEO


The abstract:

The increasing use of emojis, digital images that can represent a word or
feeling in a text or email, and the fact that they

can be strung together to create a sentence with real and full meaning
raises the question of whether they are creating a

new language amongst technologically savvy youth, or devaluing existing
language. There is however a further depth

to emoji usage as language, suggesting that they are in fact returning
language to an earlier stage of human

communication. Parallels between emojis and hieroglyphs and cuneiform can be
seen which indicates the universality

of visual communication forms, rather than written alphabetised language.
There are also indications that emojis may

be cultural or gender-specific with indications that women use more emojis
than men to express their feelings and that

age is less of an indicator of usage than technological awareness and
capability. It appears that emojis are filling the

need for adding non-verbal cues in in digital communication about the intent
and emotion behind a message.

Examinations of the way that emojis have developed and evolved and their
current and forecast usage leads to the

conclusion that they are not a "new" language developed by the technological
adept younger generations, but instead

are an evolution of older visual language systems that make use of digital
technology to create greater layers and nuance

in asynchronous communications. Furthermore, emojis are devices for
demonstrating tone, intent and feelings that

would normally be conveyed by non-verbal cues in personal communications but
which cannot be achieved in digital

messages. It is also evident from prior works and analyses of usage that
there are universal meanings to Emojis. This

suggests that as a language form, emojis may be able to contribute to
increased cross-cultural communication clarity.

Further research is however recognised as being necessary to fully
understand the role that emojis can play as a visual

language for all generations, not just those termed millennials or
technologically savvy youths