I got to pondering what Japanese might end up like if it were to be exported around the world and picked up by lots and lots of second-language speakers. I am somewhat inspired in this by the proliferation of American fans of anime; that phenomenon, combined with the large number of English loanwords into Japanese, would seem to make an excellent environment for a sort of English-Japanese creole, if, say, a whole bunch of American otaku were exported to Mars or something. I don't have much so far, but the most obvious change I would expect is a loss of vowels from original Japanese words, resulting in new consonant clusters. Specifically, the loss of devoiced vowels, which English speakers often just don't hear. Some additional tweaking to the rules may be necessary to avoid creating clusters that the Anglophone bad-Japanese learners would themselves find difficult to pronounce, but the basics would be something like this: 1. No two vowels in consecutive syllables can both be dropped. 2. /i/ & /u/ are candidates for dropping following a voiceless consonant at the end of a word, following a voiceless consonant following a downstep in pitch, or between two voiceless consonants.. 3. /o/ is a candidate for dropping between voiceless consonants where it precedes another syllable containing /o/. 4. When two or more consecutive vowels are both candidates, which vowels are actually dropped is determined by dropping the right-most candidate vowel, then the penultimate candidate vowel, and so forth. 5. Dropping of final vowels results in compensatory gemination of the preceding consonant, and aspiration on stops. After this phonological change, there is the possibility of continuing to write original Japanese words according to their historical pronunciation, but given that consonant clusters are now allowed, there is the possibility of loanwords which lack vowels in places that cannot be predicted based on those rules, and so some means would have to be devised to write individual consonants. -l.